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Coronavirus (COVID-19) FAQs for Local Governments

This page answers frequently asked questions that we have been receiving from local governments in Washington State due to the 2020 novel coronavirus pandemic (COVID-19).

It is part of MRSC's Coronavirus (COVID-19) Resources for Local Governments series.

We continue to add new FAQs and update existing answers multiple times per day. Questions that have been added or revised within the past three business days are indicated as NEW or UPDATED.

These FAQs are MRSC’s best effort to provide guidance to Washington State local governments during an uncertain time. State and federal guidance is evolving daily and there are many questions for which there are not clear answers. These FAQs should not be construed as legal advice and you should contact your agency’s legal counsel if you have a question regarding your legal rights or obligations regarding COVID-19-related issues.


Emergency Powers Generally

What emergency powers do cities and towns have?
Published March 18, 2020

The Washington State Constitution, Article XI, Section 11 provides broad authority to cities to act in the event of an emergency, stating:

Any county, city, town or township may make and enforce within its limits all such local police, sanitary and other regulations as are not in conflict with general laws.

More specifically, RCW 38.52.070 provides cities and towns with the following powers in the event of an emergency (such as the COVID-19 pandemic):

  • Enter into contracts and incur obligations to combat the emergency
  • Protect health and safety of persons and property
  • Provide emergency assistance to victims

In exercising the powers identified in RCW 38.52.070, cities and towns are specifically authorized to bypass some statutory requirements. As stated in the statute, cities and towns can exercise the powers “without regard to time-consuming procedures and formalities prescribed by law (except mandatory constitutional requirements),” including:

  • Waiver of budget law limitations;
  • Competitive bidding and publication of notice; and
  • Provisions pertaining to the following:
    • Performance of public works
    • Entering into contracts and incurring of obligations
    • Employment of temporary workers
    • Rental of equipment
    • Purchase of supplies and materials
    • Levying of taxes
    • Appropriation and expenditure of public funds.

RCW 38.52.100 authorizes the mayor or city manager to accept the following from private individuals and corporations (as well as from the federal government via the state): services, equipment, supplies materials or funds by way of gift, grant or loan for the purpose of emergency management.

RCW 38.52.110 authorizes cities and towns to “command the service and equipment” of private citizens during an emergency.

Depending on your city classification, your city may have additional powers in your specific statutory provisions.

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What emergency powers do counties have?
Published March 17, 2020

In addition to their general police powers in Article 11, Section 11 of the Washington State Constitution, county governments have all the powers delegated to local authorities under chapter 38.52 RCW: Emergency Management. This includes the authority to:

  • Enter into contracts and incur obligations necessary to combat the disaster, protecting the health and safety of persons and property, and providing emergency assistance to the victims of such disaster.
  • Waive non-constitutional budget law limitations, requirements of competitive bidding and publication of notices, provisions pertaining to the performance of public work, entering into contracts, the incurring of obligations, the employment of temporary workers, the rental of equipment, the purchase of supplies and materials, the levying of taxes, and the appropriation and expenditures of public funds. RCW 38.52.070(2).
  • Command the services and equipment of as many citizens as necessary. The persons and equipment will be treated as if they were registered emergency workers.

Additionally, counties can adopt a resolution under RCW 36.40.180 allowing for emergency expenditures. (Adoption must be by unanimous vote of commissioners present).

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What emergency powers do public hospital districts have?
Updated March 20, 2020

Unlike counties, cities, and towns, neither the Washington State Constitution nor chapter 70.44 RCW (Public Hospital Districts) provide for a general grant of emergency powers to public hospital districts.

However, public hospital districts can take the following actions during an emergency:

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What emergency powers do water and sewer districts have?
Published March 20, 2020

Unlike counties, cities, and towns, neither the Washington State Constitution nor Title 57 RCW (Water-Sewer Districts) provide for a general grant of emergency powers to water and sewer districts.

However, water and sewer districts can take the following actions during an emergency:

  • Participate in joint local emergency management organizations with other government entities and city/town/county comprehensive emergency management plans via a mutual aid or interlocal agreement pursuant to RCW 38.52.091 – see MRSC’s page on Local Emergency Management Organizations and CEMPs for more on this topic.
  • Waive competitive processes for contracting in the event of an emergency pursuant to RCW 39.04.280(1)(c) and (e) – see MRSC’s FAQ What emergency powers relate to contracting? for more on this topic.
  • The legislative body can call an emergency meeting if the district needs to take expedited action to meet the emergency – this must truly by a specific emergency faced by the district, and not a general emergency faced by society as a whole. See MRSC’s FAQ What are the rules relating to scheduling a special/emergency meeting? for more on this topic.
  • With regard to waiver of fees and disconnection penalties, the Governor’s March 18, 2020 proclamation has called on all public utilities during the term of the statewide emergency declaration to:
    • Suspend disconnection of services due to non-payment; and
    • Waive late payments and fees or offer customer payment plans.

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Office Closures, Telecommuting, and Essential Employees

UPDATED: Who has the authority to close a local government office during a public health emergency?
Updated March 31, 2020

The Washington State Office of the Attorney General issued an Informal Opinion in 2006 address the issue of whether a local health department would have the authority to close a local jurisdiction, opining that it may but the better practice is to work with the jurisdiction in closing government buidings if public health necessitates closure.

The legislative body of a city sets the days and hours in which city offices are open. RCW 35A.21.070; RCW 35.21.175. RCW 36.16.100 grants the same authority to county legislative body (council or board of commissioners). Thus, the legislative body must take action to close agency offices, unless it has delegated this authority to the chief executive through code or local policy.

One possible exception is in counties where separately-elected officials may wish to close their departments. While we find no clear legal authority for them to do so absent a county-wide policy delegating this authority, case law and attorney general opinions indicate that the board of commissioners generally has quite limited authority to impose requirements regarding other personnel matters related to non-union county officers and employees hired by and under the control of other county elected officials, absent agreement with those elected officials. So, to the extent that the department heads do not exceed their budget authority, there is an argument that each of the independently-elected department heads have the authority to close their offices.

We recommend that agencies consult their attorneys on this issue and that they work together to provide a consistent standard that is easy for residents and employees to follow.

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Can a local government close its offices to the public?
Published March 22, 2020

Yes. MRSC has advised for years that not all public buildings have to be completely open to the public at all times. See the examples below:

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What are the best practices for implementing a telecommuting program?
Published March 19, 2020

With strict social distancing policies in place in response to COVID-19, many local governments in Washington are moving quickly to implement telecommuting arrangements for employees who can work from home. Here are a few baseline considerations and best practices for telework, with some sample policies and additional resources.

Best practice tips for smaller entities without a Virtual Private Network (VPN), IT crew, or a way to remote:

For many local government employees, telework under the current circumstances may literally be limited to a telephone connection with their office and communication via email. In these instances it will be helpful to consider the following:

  • Plan for regular check-ins during the day by phone or email.
  • Create a phone tree for staff, including emergency contact information. Make sure you all know how the tree will work and who calls whom and under what circumstances.
  • Free conference calling services include freeconference.com and Google Hangouts. Popular web-based video conferencing tools include Zoom, Skype, Google Hangouts Meet, and GoToMeeting.
  • If the current circumstances continue, your organization may want to consider using a system like gsuite for instant messaging, video chat, and document creation, management, and sharing. It offers tiered pricing depending on your organization’s size, and has a phone app as well.

Best practice tips for larger entities with IT staff and remote capabilities:

  • Make sure you have adequate remote connections to your system.
  • Provide appropriate tech support. For many employees this will be their first time telecommuting and they will have a lot of basic software and connectivity questions. This may mean your tech support will need additional support.
  • Have a written policy that addresses both emergency and non-emergency situations and is clear about expectations.
  • Encourage the use of instant messaging systems that can be used by team members to check in and stay connected.
  • Make sure you know how and who to contact in case of emergency, especially where a large portion of your staff are remote.

Telework policy tips:

Here are points to consider when forming policies and guidelines:

  • References to any human resources policies, work guidelines, and/or additional requirements employees are expected to follow;
  • Agreed upon schedule of telework: include days and hours;
  • A formal agreement with employees;
  • Expectations of availability during core business hours, including how the employee will be expected to communicate, and how they will conduct meetings with other employees and clients (onsite or via phone/video?);
  • Requirements for daycare or dependent care during working hours; and
  • Who has the right to suspend or end a telecommuting agreement.

Cybersecurity risks for telecommuting

A big problem with remote work is security. On-site computers work on secure networks, but security off-network is questionable. Here are some tips:

  • Make your agreement explicit if you don’t want employees on public WiFi, and make sure they know what public WiFi and unsecured networks are.
  • Alert employees to an expected increase in phishing attempts. Malicious cyber actors may increase phishing emails targeting teleworkers to steal their usernames and passwords. Be aware that there are cybercriminals capitalizing on this emergency, including phishing emails purporting to be from the CDC.
  • VPNs and Remote Desktop Connections pose some risk; check with your IT staff to make sure patches and updates are current.

For examples of telecommuting policies and agreements, including some temporary agreements specific to the current COVID-19 crisis, see our Telecommuting page.

Related resources:

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What does the governor’s “stay-at-home” order mean for local governments and their employees?
Updated March 24, 2020

Under the governor’s order (Proclamation 20-25) issued on March 23, local governments can:

  • Continue to provide essential services (public health, public safety, maintenance of public infrastructure). Try to get as much of your staff working remotely as you can.
  • Your governing body can continue to meet but try to do so remotely.

Individual jurisdictions may, but do not need to, pass their own order. Violation of the Proclamation is a gross misdemeanor under RCW 43.06.220(5). MRSC believes that local governments have the authority to enforce the Proclamation. If your jurisdiction has a previously enacted order, we believe that the more restrictive of the two would control.

The Proclamation is effective immediately until April 6, 2020 unless extended. It requires everyone in the state to stay in their place of residence unless they are participating in an “essential activity.” An essential activity is limited to:

  • Obtaining necessary supplies and services (food, supplies for the home or needed to work from home, safety and cleaning supplies)
  • Medical care for yourself and others.
  • Outdoor exercise if social distancing is maintained.
  • Employment in essential business services according to the Essential Critical Infrastructure Workers list, or carrying out minimum basic operations (activity necessary to maintain inventory, preserve physical plant, process payroll, facilitate remote work).

The question of whether your staff are “essential” employees under Proclamation 20-25 will depend on several factors. The list includes “Critical government workers, including the Governor’s Office, as defined by the employer and consistent with Continuity of Operations Plans and Continuity of Government plans.

For examples of letters designating employees as essential and authorizing them to travel, see our COVID-19 Operations and Personnel Issues page. To clarify whether your staff qualifies as “essential critical infrastructure workers” or to petition to be added to this list, please use the state's online form.

Other exemptions include:

  • Persons whose homes are unsafe, including victims of domestic violence. The Proclamation urges those persons to see alternate locations.
  • Persons experiencing homelessness. The Proclamation encourages them to seek shelter. It also encourages government and other entities to provide shelter as soon as possible.

All public and private gatherings are prohibited, unless those gatherings only include people in a single household or residential living unit.

Effective midnight, March 25, 2020 until midnight April 8, 2020 (unless extended) all non-essential business must stop operating except for basic minimum operations (activity necessary to maintain inventory, preserve physical plant, process payroll, facilitate remote work). Essential businesses can stay open but must implement social distancing and sanitation measures.

Business exemptions:

  • Businesses that operate out of their homes and do not have in-person contact with clients.
  • Working from home.
  • Operating a single-owner business with no in-person contact.
  • Restaurants and food services operating delivery or take-away services (if social distancing and sanitation measures are followed).

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NEW: Are local government employees that issue building/land use permits and complete construction-related inspections essential workers?
Published March 31, 2020

They can be, if determined to be so by their agency. Some employees are clearly designated as essential, such as public health, police, and fire employees, as well as those staff performing activities necessary to support first responders. However, there are a number of gray areas, including construction, permitting, and inspections.

For more detail, see the Essential Services and Employees section of our COVID-19 Operations and Personnel Issues page. The State of Washington also has a webpage about Essential Businesses, including an online form where employers can request clarification as to whether they are considered "essential" or to request inclusion on the list of essential businesses.

One unresolved question: If the Governor’s proclamation allows essential construction work, is an agency required to have staff on-hand to process building and land use permits and complete construction-related inspections? We have found no clear answer. Because this involves questions of local allocation of resources, emergency powers at both the state and local level, and possible questions of preemption, we recommend you discuss your options with you attorney.

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Public Meetings and Public Hearings

Emergency Proclamation Regarding Open Public Meetings Act

On March 24, Gov. Inslee issued Proclamation 20-28 suspending the portions of the Open Public Meetings Act and Public Records Act that require in-person meetings or contact and making additional temporary changes. We have updated the answers below to reflect the new proclamation.

Also see the state Attorney General's Office Open Public Meetings Act (OPMA) General Guidance Regarding Coronavirus (issued March 6, 2020) and Supplemental Guidance (issued March 26 following the governor's PRA/OPMA proclamation).

What are the rules relating to scheduling a special/emergency meeting?
Published March 3, 2020

The Open Public Meetings Act recognizes the necessity to call an emergency meeting if there is a need for expedited action to meet the emergency. 42.30.070; RCW 42.30.080(4). The emergency meeting can be held at a site other than the typical meeting site, and the 24-hour notice for a special meeting is not required. The governing body should state on the record the reason for the short notice – e.g., coronavirus and the need to get policies in place and respond to the emerging situation.

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How do we let the public know when we’re having a meeting (or when we’re canceling or moving one)?
Updated March 26, 2020

The time and place of your regular meetings have already been established by your governing body. However, Governor Inslee’s Proclamation 20-28 issued March 24, 2020 and effective until midnight on April 23, 2020 requires that all meetings of the governing body not be held in person. Instead, they must be held remotely while providing as much telephonic or other electronic remote access as necessary. The Proclamation specifically waives certain notice requirements, such as those in RCW 42.30.070 which allow the presiding officer to move the regular meeting place in an emergency.

MRSC recommends that you provide notice of the new location by as many means as is practicable (website, notification to local media). The Proclamation also waives the requirement in RCW 42.30.080(2)(c) that requires notice of a special meeting to be physically posted. The requirement for posting notice of a special meeting at least 24 hours before the time of the meeting (to news organizations and on your website if applicable) is still in effect. Again, we recommend you publicize the change in time as widely as is practicable.

What if I had a public hearing scheduled?

Assuming you’d properly noticed the meeting under whichever statute required the hearing, MRSC believes you can continue that meeting without having to follow the full procedures required for the original notice.

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Are there any limits as to what actions we can take at a council/commission meeting during this emergency?
Updated March 27, 2020

Yes. The Governor’s emergency Proclamation 20-28, issued March 24, requires agencies to meet completely remotely without providing for a physical location. Because of this restricted access to the meeting, the Proclamation also says that:

[A]gencies are further prohibited from taking “action,” as defined in RCW 42.30.020, unless those matters are necessary and routine matters or are matters necessary to respond to the COVID-19 outbreak and the current public health emergency, until such time as regular public participation under the Open Public Meetings Act is possible.

Under RCW 42.30.020(3), "action" means the transaction of the official business of a public agency by a governing body including but not limited to receipt of public testimony, deliberations, discussions, considerations, reviews, evaluations, and final actions. "Final action" means a collective positive or negative decision, or an actual vote by a majority of the members of a governing body when sitting as a body or entity, upon a motion, proposal, resolution, order, or ordinance.

Items necessary to respond to the emergency could include ratification of administrative proclamations and orders and approval of emergency contracts.

The proclamation does not provide a definition for “necessary and routine” matters. We suggest you limit agenda items to areas such as approving payroll and other vouchers, approval of minutes of previous meetings, and other matters that cannot wait until you can provide a physical location where the public can attend.

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How do we hold meetings during this emergency? How do we handle public comment and public hearings?
Updated March 27, 2020

During this emergency, agencies are not required to have a physical location for a meeting of a governing body. In fact, Governor Inslee’s Proclamation 20-28, issued March 24, actually prohibits a physical location. It says:

Any public agency, subject to RCW 42.30, is prohibited from conducting any meeting, subject to RCW 42.30 unless (a) the meeting is not conducted in-person and instead provides an option(s) for the public to attend the proceedings through, at minimum, telephonic access, and may also include other electronic, internet or other means of remote access, and (b) provides the ability for all persons attending the meeting to hear each other at the same time. at minimum, telephonic access, and may also include other electronic, internet or other means of remote access, and (b) provides the ability for all persons attending the meeting to hear each other at the same time.

The Proclamation also waives requirements to physically post notices of meetings and meeting adjournments on-site. However, agencies are still required to post notices to their websites (if applicable) and notify local news organizations as usual.

You must still provide a way for people to hear everything that goes on during the meeting, and remote attendance options must include a telephonic option even if video or other online streaming options are also available. A jurisdiction cannot opt to do only video or other internet-based streaming, but must provide a call-in number so that participants can hear the meeting. If your local rules provide for public comment, you must allow people participating remotely to provide that comment. Some online platforms have a “raise your hand” function. Other agencies are suggesting people submit their comments by email before or during the meeting.

Care should also be taken to make sure your meetings are compliant with the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). Carefully research the technology that you select. Most technologies have specific accessibility features. For instance:

For teleconference lines, you may need to have a real-time transcriber for the hearing impaired on the call if requested. (See the CDC’s 2010 guidance on Making Meetings Accessible.) Be sure your notice includes a contact person for accommodation requests.

Proclamation 20-28 also limits the actions that an agency can put on its agenda during this emergency period to "necessary and routine matters" or matters necessary to respond to the COVID-19 outbreak and the current public health emergency.

Agencies should consult with their legal counsel as to how best to proceed depending on the specific situation. Also, please see the Attorney General’s Office’s general overview and suggestions.

This prohibition on conducting physical meetings supersedes our previous advice, which was based on AGO 2017 No. 4, in which MRSC had advised that there still must be at least one designated physical meeting place for the public to attend, and to address the governing body when appropriate (such as during a public comment period).

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UPDATED: How do we adjourn into an executive session during a “remote” meeting?
Updated March 31, 2020

Pretty much the same way you normally would. The presiding officer announces that they are going to adjourn into executive session, states the purpose, and the time they will return. Use the Executive Session Script, as modified for the technology you’re using.

What comes next depends on the technology you’re using. Depending on your conferencing software, the governing body can switch to a different call/session, while leaving the public meeting call/session open. We recommend a staff member stay on the original call/session to remind other attendees that the governing body will reconvene. The presiding officer should ask each person attending the executive session to confirm that no one who was not invited to the executive session is either physically present or on the line.

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What are some good technology options for remote public engagement?
Published March 18, 2020

With statewide social distancing requirements now in place, MRSC is recommending that local agencies use remote meeting technology tools to conduct community meetings that will exceed current group size limitations.

Basic technology options include telephonic conference calls and/or use of web-based video conferencing software and platforms that allow members of the legislative body and the public to attend meetings remotely.

Free conference calling services include freeconference.com and Google Hangouts. Popular web-based video conferencing tools include Zoom, Skype, Google Hangouts Meet, and GoToMeeting. Use of live polling (for example, Slido) during remote meetings may also be worth considering as a way to engage with participants. (This list is for informational purposes only and is not intended as an endorsement of these services.)

Quick Tips

Consider the following quick tips as you select and implement remote community meeting technologies:

  • Test the technology ahead of time to ensure that all systems are “go” by the time your meeting is scheduled to start.
  • Video conferencing provides the best experience, but have an audio dial-in option available for back-up.
  • Make sure that the platform you use enables the public to listen in and to participate during times like the public comment period.
  • You will also need a method to mute and unmute (usually included in the software user controls) people so that you won’t be interrupted during agenda items that aren’t open to public comment.
  • Remote meetings with multiple participants can be tricky so be sure to distribute meeting participation rules in advance and enforce them.
  • Some vendors, including Microsoft, Google, Cisco and LogMeIn, are making some of their chat and video-conferencing services free in response to the spread of the coronavirus.
  • Use this opportunity to become more acquainted with video-conferencing technology as a community engagement tool.

Related Resources

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Does a city or county have authority to continue or postpone hearings on land use permits based on public health concerns and the need to prioritize other city functions during an emergency? What is the impact on the statutory time requirements for processing such permits?
Updated March 25, 2020

The Governor’s Emergency Proclamation 20-25 (“Stay Home - Stay Healthy”) and Emergency Proclamation 20-28 (prohibiting in-person meetings at physical locations through April 23, 2020) provide a legal basis for an agency to postpone or continue a land use hearing scheduled during that time since holding a public hearing would be either impossible or impracticable under the terms of those proclamations. Any order should also state the effect of the continuance or postponement on the processing time for permit applications. For example, the order could provide that the processing timelines will be tolled during the duration of the emergency as declared by the governor or the appropriate city or county official.

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Is there a provision in state law that allows our agency to waive signatures on documents such as minutes, resolutions and ordinances -- so long as our governing body approves them verbally?
Published March 26, 2020

There are no specific signature requirements in state law regarding meeting minutes. Signature requirements for minutes are usually a matter of local rules or policies, so an agency’s governing body could waive such requirements, especially in an emergency.

Resolutions are typically signed by the chair of the governing body, but again, state law does not impose specific requirements on who signs a resolution or how it should be signed.

State law does address signatures on ordinances for some types of cities. For example, RCW 35A.12.130 requires that in mayor-council code cities, ordinances be signed by the mayor and attested to by the city clerk. For other types of cities, towns, and counties for which there are no specific signature requirements, a common practice is to have ordinances signed by the chair or presiding officer of the governing body, approved as to form by legal counsel, and attested to by the clerk.

Although the Governor’s Proclamation 20-28 prohibits meetings at physical locations through April 23, 2020, an individual with signature authority could constitute essential personnel for the purpose of signing documents that are necessary during the emergency. Therefore, an individual could go to the agency’s offices to sign necessary documents, even if a public meeting cannot be held, if no alternatives are available.

Another option, which would work for certain types of documents, is to provide phone or email authorization to sign documents. For example, the chair of a governing body could ask the clerk to sign a resolution and the clerk would write the following in the signature line: “[Clerk signature] for [print name of Chair] by [email or phone] authorization on [enter date].”

Electronic signatures are also an option for agencies that have the technology to use them. For many documents you can use some form of electronic or facsimile signature. State and local agencies are authorized to use and accept electronic signatures under chapter 19.360 RCW. For the use of “autopen” or signature stamps, look at RCW 39.62.020. MRSC has published two blog posts on the subject: Electronic Signatures, Submissions, and Bids for Local Governments and Electronic Document Transmittals and Options for Electronic Signatures.

Ultimately, an agency should consult with its legal counsel to determine what (if anything) constitutes an appropriate substitute for an ink signature.

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Enforcing Emergency Orders

Does a city have the authority to issue a quarantine (separation of individuals who have been exposed to an infection) or an isolation (separation of those who have been infected)?
Published March 3, 2020

Quarantines are typically imposed by the Governor, or the local Board of Health, not by cities. However, local governments do have broad powers to protect public health. For instance, an old Seattle ordinance related to communicable diseases (quarantine exposure to smallpox) was upheld by the Washington Supreme Court:

There is no doubt and it is not denied that the city had the power to enact the ordinance here in question and had the power to create health and quarantine officers, as it has done, by the charter and ordinance provisions. [City of Seattle v. Cottin, 144 Wash. 572, 576, 258 P. 520, 521 (1927)]

Therefore, while it appears under this 1927 case that cities do have the authority impose a quarantine, the better practice is to coordinate with the county board of health on issuance of a quarantine.

For more information on quarantine authority, see "Federal and State Quarantine and Isolation Authority," Congressional Research Service Report for Congress (October 9, 2014).

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Can a local government prohibit hoarding of resources and products?
Published March 20, 2020

Although the local health officer does have broad authority to “[t]ake such action as is necessary to maintain health and sanitation supervision” under RCW 70.05.070(2), there is no specific authority granted to the local health officer or other local government to prohibit resource and product hoarding.

Local governments should disseminate information over their communication channels discouraging resource and product hoarding – a good example of this is the state Department of Health’s press release telling Washingtonians to Leave some for your neighbors: Don’t buy more than you need.

For their part, retailers have been imposing purchase limits for high demand items; local health officers should be in direct communication with local retailers on this issue. And, on a related note, the State Attorney General’s Office is investigating complaints of price gouging related to COVID-19, so any price gouging should be reported to the AGO.

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UPDATED: Are city police and county sheriffs obligated to enforce emergency orders related to matters such as restaurant closures, social distancing, and limits on crowds?
Updated March 31, 2020

With regard to local health department orders issued under RCW 70.05.050, yes. WAC 246-100-070 provides as follows:

Enforcement of local health officer orders.

(1) An order issued by a local health officer in accordance with this chapter shall constitute the duly authorized application of lawful rules adopted by the state board of health and must be enforced by all police officers, sheriffs, constables, and all other officers and employees of any political subdivisions within the jurisdiction of the health department in accordance with RCW 43.20.050. [emphasis added].
(2) Any person who shall violate any of the provisions of this chapter or any lawful rule adopted by the board shall be deemed guilty of a misdemeanor punishable as provided under RCW 42.20.050.
(3) Any person who shall fail or refuse to obey any lawful order issued by any local health officer shall be deemed guilty of a misdemeanor punishable as provided under RCW 70.05.120.

With regard to the Governor’s orders, the law is not as clear on enforcement. While local law enforcement have the authority to investigate violations of the Governor’s orders whether they are obligated to do so is not as clear. RCW 38.52.110(1) provides for the commandeering of local law enforcement, but the Governor’s orders do not clearly invoke this authority. RCW 38.52.150 does provide that it is “the duty of every organization for emergency management” and “the officers thereof to execute and enforce” the orders of the Governor. However, the definition of “local organization for emergency services or management” in RCW 38.52.010(19) does not appear to automatically encompass local law enforcement.

On March 30, 2020, Governor Inslee issued guidance for enforcement of the “Stay at Home” order. While violation of the order is still a criminal offense, law enforcement agencies are prioritizing education over criminal penalties for individuals and businesses. For businesses, the Governor’s office points out that local governments and state regulatory agencies may take additional enforcement action, such as citations, suspension notices, revoking someone’s business license, potential criminal charges, and even a Consumer Protection Act violation action.

The state has established a website for reporting violations of the Governor’s order.

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What is the process for an arrest and prosecution of a violation of an emergency order?
Published March 18, 2020

Special thanks to Pam Loginsky, Staff Attorney, Washington Association of Prosecuting Attorneys, for assistance with this topic.

RCW 43.06.220 gives the governor the authority to issue orders during a proclaimed emergency. RCW 43.06.220(5) makes willful violation of those orders a gross misdemeanor. The statute also provides that, after the emergency has been proclaimed, malicious destruction of property, disorderly conduct, refusing to leave a public way or property when ordered, all carry criminal penalties. (See RCW 43.06.230, 43.06.240, and 43.06.250.) Persons 16 years or over may be prosecuted as an adult for certain violations under this chapter (RCW 43.06.260).

RCW 70.05.120(4) makes violations of certain state and local health department rules or orders a misdemeanor. It also makes evading or breaking quarantine a misdemeanor.

Who can be charged?

Any natural person who violates the order. Also, an entity (a business organized under Title 23, 23B, or 25 RCW) that violates an order can be charged with a crime (RCW 10.01.070). An entity is subject to fines of up to $50,000 for a misdemeanor violation and up to $250,000 for a gross misdemeanor violation (RCW 10.01.100).

Who investigates?

Local law enforcement agencies have the authority to investigate violations occurring in their jurisdiction. And, as appropriate, to issue citations, arrest, or refer violations to the prosecuting attorney. (The Attorney General has opined that the Sheriff and city police have concurrent jurisdiction over felonies and violations of state law within incorporated cities (AGO 1990 No. 4, AGO 1961-62 No. 25)).

As with all gross misdemeanor and misdemeanors, a law enforcement official can only arrest (without a warrant) if the offense is committed in the officers’ presence, unless one of the exceptions in RCW 10.31.100 applies.

Where does it get filed?

If the city or town has adopted the specific state laws authorizing emergency orders by reference, or adopts an ordinance making violation of these types of emergency orders a violation in the City’s code, it can be filed by the city prosecutor in its local court. Otherwise, it should be referred to the county prosecutor.

City and county prosecutors should verify that the case is filed in the correct local court. Was it created under chapter 3.30, 3.50, or 35.20?

Law enforcement agencies should coordinate with their emergency management team and surrounding jurisdictions on their protocol for detaining persons who may be contagious. Agencies might consider a consolidated facility in order to reduce staffing requirements and risk of contagion.

Finally, law enforcement agencies should seek guidance from their police legal advisor and/or prosecutor.

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Procurement

What emergency powers relate to contracting?
Published March 18, 2020

First of all, any purchase, public works project, or service for which a competitive process is waived must be an explicit necessity and directly related to the emergency.

That said, the competitive bidding exemptions of RCW 39.04.280 could apply in this situation – in particular, waiving the normal competitive bidding procedures for emergency purchases, emergency public works, or (potentially) purchases related to special market conditions. For more information, see our Competitive Bidding Exemptions page.

In addition, RCW 39.80.060 provides an exemption for emergency architecture and engineering (A&E) contracts.

There are no statutory requirements for purchased services or (for most agencies) personal services, so agencies should follow their own internal procedures. For port districts, RCW 53.19.020-.030 provides an exemption for emergency personal service contracts.

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Can we proceed with holding a public bid opening if our public office is shut down, or if we cannot accommodate the expected audience in accordance with emergency health and safety guidance? Can we require that bids be submitted electronically?
Published March 20, 2020

As an option, a remote meeting could be used to handle the bid opening requirements for this contract. The Attorney General's Office has provided general guidance regarding coronavirus and the Open Public Meetings Act, which suggests various alternatives such as allowing remote attendance by both the members of the governing body and the audience, or rescheduling a meeting. (Also see the AG's Suppllemental Guidance issued March 26.)

Some agencies are waiving the competitive process through an emergency declaration (RCW 39.04.280). There may be a portion of the competitive process that you can alter/cancel during the emergency, such as the sealed bid requirement.

If you have a bid program that allows electronic bid receipt and which holds bids as electronically sealed until a designated release time, you might default to this process for all bids, or waive the requirement for hard copy bids under an emergency declaration and receive only electronic copies per some other instruction.

Some agencies are having bids placed in drop boxes, delivered by carrier, or by setting an appointment to drop off documents. You should discuss appropriate options with your legal counsel.

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Public Records

Emergency Proclamation Regarding Public Records Act

On March 24, Gov. Inslee issued Proclamation 20-28 suspending the portions of the Open Public Meetings Act and Public Records Act that require in-person meetings or contact and making additional temporary changes. We have updated the answers below to reflect the new proclamation.

Special thanks to Assistant Attorney General Morgan Damerow for his assistance in drafting these PRA FAQs.

Is the five-business day response deadline in RCW 42.56.520(1) still in effect during this emergency?
Updated March 25, 2020

On March 24, 2020, the Governor issued Proclamation 20-28, temporarily waiving the requirement in RCW 42.56.520(1) to response to a request for public records within five business days.

Specifically, the Governor waived the following language in BOLD:

Responses to requests for public records shall be made promptly by agencies, the office of the secretary of the senate, and the office of the chief clerk of the house of representatives. Within five business days of receiving a public record request, an agency, the office of the secretary of the senate, or the office of the chief clerk of the house of representatives must respond in one of the ways provided in this subsection.

This means that local governments are still required to “promptly” respond to a public records request with a letter that includes one of the allowable responses from RCW 42.56.520(1), but are not required to do so within five business days.

However, agencies that have the staff and the technology for remote work should still endeavor to respond within five days.

This temporary waiver is in currently in effect until midnight on April 23, 2020. After that time, unless the Governor extends the expiration date of the waiver, the waiver will cease and the five-day response deadline will be back in effect.

Local governments should prominently post on their website and/or communicate to the public through other means that the five-business day response time has been suspended by the proclamation but will make all feasible efforts to respond promptly to requests for records.

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Our customer service counter has closed. Are we still required to accept public records requests? What if a requestor wants to physically inspect records?
Updated March 25, 2020

On March 24, 2020, to prevent “bringing people in contact with one another at a time when the virus is rapidly spreading,” the Governor issued Proclamation 20-28, temporarily waiving certain requirements of the Public Records Act that would normally require in-person contact between the public and the local agency staff.

Specifically, the Governor waived the following language in BOLD:

RCW 42.56.080(2)
Agency facilities shall be made available to any person for the copying of public records except when and to the extent that this would unreasonably disrupt the operations of the agency. Agencies shall honor requests received in person during an agency's normal office hours, or by mail or email, for identifiable public records unless exempted by provisions of this chapter.

RCW 42.56.090
Public records shall be available for inspection and copying during the customary office hours of the agency … for a minimum of thirty hours per week, except weeks that include state legal holidays, unless the person making the request and the agency … agree on a different time.

RCW 42.56.100
Agencies shall adopt and enforce reasonable rules and regulations …consonant with the intent of this chapter to provide full public access to public records.

Currently, the waiver of these requirements will expire at midnight on April 23, 2020.

What this means is that local agencies are still required to accept and process public records requests, but only by mail or email or other non-in-person means. Agencies are not required and should not accept any in-person requests for records.

Further, requests for in-person inspection of records should not be allowed while the Proclamation is in effect, and any previously scheduled appointments should be cancelled. The agency should discuss with the requestor potential alternatives to providing physical access to the records, such as:

  • Schedule to provide access to the records once the Proclamation and other “Stay-at-Home” orders are lifted;
  • Invite the requestor to withdraw the request and resubmit later;
  • Provide records in electronic form and/or paper copies that are then sent through the mail; or
  • Other solutions that still comply with any of the Governor’s Proclamations and Orders.

The agency should also explore alternate means to receive payment for copies of records such as via mail-in check or credit/debit card over the phone or through a secure website.

Local governments should prominently post on their website and/or communicate to the public through other means that in-person requests for records will not be accepted and that requests for in-person inspection of records will not be allowed as long as the Proclamation remains in effect. If the agency has not done so already, it should post how to remotely submit requests and communicate with the Public Records Officer.

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We have received records requests related to our response to the coronavirus outbreak. Are we required to prioritize those requests?
Updated March 25, 2020

The public records process is not the most effective or efficient method of transmitting this type of information to the public, but once a records request is filed, it needs to be processed as such under the Public Records Act (PRA).

Normally, under RCW 42.56.520, when a request is received, an agency is required to do one of the following things within five business days:

  1. Provide the records requested;
  2. Provide a link to the specific records requested on the agency’s website;
  3. Acknowledge receipt of the request and providing a reasonable estimate of the time necessary to respond;
  4. Acknowledge receipt of the request and requesting clarification for a request that is unclear;
  5. Deny the request.

The PRA does not require an agency to take action on a faster timeline and the Governor's Proclamation 20-28 waives the five-day deadline. Nor does it require an agency to prioritize certain types of requests or requestors over others. At the same time, “slow-walking” a response or other unreasonable delay could be the basis of sanctions in the future.

MRSC encourages agencies to be proactive in sharing information on COVID-19 measures with their employees, unions, and the public on an ongoing basis. Sharing that information should occur separately from the PRA response process since the PRA is not structured or designed to address communications on emergent situations.

You will likely receive many requests for such records during the course of this emergency situation. If your agency is capable, consider sharing relevant documents on your website so you can direct requestors to the already available information.

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How do we deal with pending requests if we are unable to perform searches due to closure/staff unavailability/telecommuting?
Updated March 25, 2020

An agency must make a reasonable estimate of time for the production of records.

The reasonableness of an estimated response time may depend on a number of factors including the number of records requested and the difficulty in gathering and reviewing the requested records. If an agency is in the early stages of responding to a request, the agency should take factors such as the ability to search for records, closure, or reduced capacity due to telecommuting into consideration in identifying an estimated production date. If an agency is further along in responding to a request, an agency may extend its estimate of time for the production of records when more time is needed than initially anticipated.

If an agency is challenged on the reasonableness of an agency’s time estimate, or an extension, the burden of proof is on the agency to show that its estimate, or extension, was reasonable. While the PRA does not require an agency to provide a written explanation of its time estimate, good communications benefit both the requestor and an agency. Consider providing information to the requestor about the difficulties the agency is facing in processing a pending request.

Keep in mind the operative word for the estimate of time is “reasonable.” Each request should be considered separately taking into account the factors and issues involved in responding to each request. An agency should not use a standard estimate for every request.

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Our office is closed to the public and non-essential personnel are telecommuting. How do we process requests remotely?
Updated March 25, 2020

Your ability to process requests remotely will largely depend on what, if any, technology solutions your agency has adopted. Please see MRSC PRA and Records Management Tech Guide for a comprehensive review of PRA technology used throughout the state. Given the possibility that this situation may continue for many months, it may be worth considering investing in technology that assists along these lines.

At the very least, you should have a system set up where you can receive requests by mail or other electronic means and provide the response letter required by RCW 42.56.520(1) as soon as feasible.

Keep in mind, it will likely be difficult to search paper files for responsive records if your agency is on extended telecommuting and non-essential personnel are subject to a "Stay-at-Home" order. Consider providing electronic records in the first installment(s) and then provide an estimate of when paper files may be available for a later installment. Be sure to document your search efforts and communicate with the requestor why it may take longer to search for certain records.

Further, if you have any pending requests and upcoming deadlines for promised installments, now is a good time to communicate with the requestors to let them know you will likely not meet the original proposed deadline and provide a reasonable estimate when the records may be available.

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Prior to the Governor's Proclamation waiving the five-day response time, our office was completely closed for two days to allow for cleaning. Do those days count toward the 5-day response time?
Updated March 25, 2020

Prior to the issuance of the Governor’s Proclamation 20-28 on March 24, 2020, RCW 42.56.520 was still in full force and effect. Requests received prior to the Proclamation may still be subject to the five-business day response deadline.

The PRA does not contain a separate definition of what constitutes a business day; whether it is based on days that the agency is open for business or is viewed from a broader perspective. Agencies should do their best to acknowledge receipt of a request received before March 25, 2020, within five business days viewed from the broader, more conservative perspective. This calculation does not include weekends or holidays.

If the two days an agency is closed is before the 5-day response time deadline, and an agency has resumed at least some operations, a prudent approach is to provide an acknowledgement of a request including an estimate for production that treats the 2-days as if the office was not closed. If the 5-day response time expired during the 2-day office closure, on the first day that an agency resumes operations the conservative approach is to at minimum acknowledge a request.

Depending on an agency’s technology infrastructure, agency employees may be able to work remotely allowing an agency to acknowledge a request and avoid issues related to office closure.

In addition, good communications benefit both the requestor and an agency. Consider including information as part of an agency response providing information concerning the suspended operations due to the emergent need to keep both the public and employees safe by closing and to comply with any “Stay-at-Home” orders.

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Finance Issues

Can a local government modify and/or implement a less-than-daily deposit schedule due to the impacts of COVID-19? For example, switching to every other day or some other schedule for depositing payments received.
Published March 24, 2020

RCW 43.09.240 reads in part:

Every public officer and employee, whose duty it is to collect or receive payments due or for the use of the public shall deposit such moneys collected or received by him or her with the treasurer of the local government once every twenty-four consecutive hours. The treasurer may in his or her discretion grant an exception where such daily transfers would not be administratively practical or feasible as long as the treasurer has received a written request from the department, district, or agency, and where the department, district, or agency certifies that the money is held with proper safekeeping and that the entity carries out proper theft protection to reduce risk of loss of funds. Exceptions granted by the treasurer shall state the frequency with which deposits are required as long as no exception exceeds a time period greater than one deposit per week.

All local government entities whose duty it is to collect or receive payments may make exceptions to the daily deposit schedule if granted by the treasurer.

For many special purpose districts, the county treasurer is the treasurer for the district. RCW 36.29.010 reads:

Money received by all entities for whom the county treasurer serves as treasurer must be deposited within twenty-four hours in an account designated by the county treasurer unless a waiver is granted by the county treasurer in accordance with RCW 43.09.240.

In all cases – whether cities, counties or special purpose districts – the requirement for daily deposits may be granted an exception to this requirement by the treasurer. If daily deposits are administratively not practical or feasible a written exception can be requested and/or granted by the treasurer. However, it’s important to note that the statute requires at a minimum of weekly deposits.

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Is it legal to expend lodging tax revenue for festivals and events that are cancelled? What if we anticipate that it will be cancelled but it hasn't happened yet?
Published March 24, 2020

Chapter 67.28 RCW provides the basis for distribution of lodging tax funds. RCW 67.28.1816 allows the funds to be distributed to convention and visitors bureau or destination marketing organizations for tourism marketing; special events and festivals; operations and capital expenditures of tourism-related facilities owned or operated by a the municipality or a public facilities district; and operations of tourism-related facilities owned or operated by nonprofit organizations.

The planning, organization, and preparation for festivals and events are all allowed expenditures for the marketing and operations of special events and festivals (RCW 67.28.1816(1)(b)). The current state of emergency that has been declared resulted in the cancellation of many events but for many of these cancellations there are costs that could still be still be covered. These are unprecedented times and the emergency declaration does not eliminate expenses already incurred for marketing and other operational costs.

Cities, towns and counties will have to assess individual circumstances of those distributions associated with a festival or event. In many cases the direct costs associated with cancellation would be considered an allowable cost, such as non-refundable deposits on facilities, permit fees, and other event organization costs. While considering the costs that are still eligible, you will also want to ask whether the event organizer purchased insurance that would allow for the recovery of some of these operating costs when an event is cancelled.

For events and festivals that will be occurring in the future it will be difficult to estimate whether those activities will continue to be held. Communication with the event organizers will be an important component of monitoring and oversight. Will the event/festival be postponed to a later time in the year, or will it be cancelled altogether? Should the distribution of lodging tax monies be refunded or applied to the re-scheduled event? If the event is not being rescheduled should you consider applying current year distributions to next year’s event. The important factor will be your oversight and internal controls to ensure that lodging tax distributions have been utilized appropriately, whether that is now or in the foreseeable future.

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Personnel Issues

If a local government closes its offices due to a public health emergency, do the local government employees receive their normal pay? If an employee is sent home for exhibiting symptoms of COVID-19, do they receive their normal pay?
Published March 3, 2020

The Washington State Office of the Attorney General issued an Informal Opinion in 2006 addressing this issue, concluding that a city “could elect to continue to pay salaries and benefits to its employees, who are not allowed to report to work for all or part of a closure period.” The memo further provides, however, that this is up to local discretion and the city could, alternatively, require employees take leave without pay, accrued leave or compensatory time. Collective bargaining agreements may constrain the city’s authority in some circumstances. Spokane Valley adopted Resolution No. 09-013 which provides employees with their normal compensation if they are precluded from working for health and safety reasons (e.g., a quarantine).

Similarly, if an employee is sent home for exhibiting symptoms of COVID-19, the local government can adopt a policy for which type of leave must be taken. For example, Olympia issued an Executive Order providing for Administrative Leave for the day in which an employee is sent home for illness and sick leave for any subsequent days. Another example is Sedro-Woolley’s policy which requires the use of sick leave, vacation leave, compensatory time, furlough days or unpaid leave if they are sent home with influenza-like illness.

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Can a local government require employees that are returning from travel (cruise/air travel) to self-quarantine for two weeks?
Published March 18, 2020

Yes, if they are traveling from a high-risk country. See the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s information on Coronavirus and Level 3 Travel Health Notices.

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Can a local government require employees to tell their supervisor or HR if they have contracted COVID-19?
Published March 18, 2020

Probably yes.

The Americans with Disabilities Act prohibits employers from making disability-related inquiries and requiring medical examinations unless (1) the employer can show that the inquiry or exam is job-related and consistent with business necessity, or (2) the employer has a reasonable belief that the employee poses a “direct threat” to the health or safety of the individual or others that cannot otherwise be eliminated or reduced by reasonable accommodation.

According to the U.S. Equal Opportunity Employment Commission (EEOC), whether a particular outbreak rises to the level of a “direct threat” depends on the severity of the illness. The EEOC instructs employers that the assessment by the CDC or public health authorities provides the objective evidence needed for a disability-related inquiry or medical examination. During a pandemic, an employer does not have to wait until an employee develops symptoms to ask questions about exposure to a pandemic influenza during recent travel. If the CDC or state or local public health officials recommend that people who visit specified locations remain at home after traveling, an employer may ask an employee what locations they have traveled to, even if the travel was for personal reasons.

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UPDATED: How does the new federal Families First Coronavirus Response Act (FFCRA) apply to local governments?
Updated April 1, 2020

The federal Families First Coronavirus Response Act (FFCRA) is in effect April 1, 2020-December 31, 2020 and provides for two sources of additional, paid leave for local government employees (as well as many private sector employees). Private employers are entitled to a tax credit for these benefits paid to employees but local government employers are not.

Summit Law Group has provided a summary of the law and the Department of Labor (DOL) has helpful information posted on its website. Here are highlights of the law:

  • Emergency Family and Medical Leave Expansion Act. Employees who have been on payroll for 30 days or more are entitled to 12 weeks of Expanded Family and Medical Leave if the employee cannot work due to the need to care for a child because of school closure or unavailability of the childcare provider.
    • The first two weeks (10 days) of expanded family and medical leave are unpaid, but the employee must be allowed to use emergency paid sick leave or other accrued leave for those two weeks.
    • For leave after the initial 10 days, the employer must pay the employee at least 2/3 of their regular pay. Pay is capped at $200/day and $10,000 in the aggregate.
    • Employers may exclude health care providers and emergency responders from coverage.
  • Emergency Paid Sick Leave Act. Full-time employees are entitled to up to 80 hours of Emergency Paid Sick Leave; part-time employees are entitled to the number of hours they typically work over a two-week period. This is in addition to any standard sick leave already provided by the employer. All employees are eligible; it does not matter how long they have been employed. An employee is entitled to Emergency Paid Sick Leave only for COVID-19-related reasons, including illness, quarantine/isolation or school closure/childcare provider unavailability due to COVID-19 precautions. The covered reasons for leave are detailed in Summit Law Group’s summary.
    • Employers cannot require employees use other leave prior to using Emergency Paid Sick Leave.
    • If the leave is taken due to the employee’s own health or quarantine/isolation, the employee must be paid their regular rate of pay. Pay is capped at $511/day and $5,110 in the aggregate.
    • If leave is taken for other eligible reasons, the employee must be paid at least 2/3 of their regular rate of pay, but pay may be capped at $200/day and $2,000 in the aggregate.
    • Employers may exclude health care providers and emergency responders from coverage.

Posting Requirements

Employers subject to FFCRA must post a DOL poster (there are separate versions for federal employees and non-federal employees) about FFCRA and employees rights in a conspicuous place on the premises by April 1. DOL has advised that, since many employees are telecommuting, employers may satisfy this requirement by mailing or emailing the notice to employees, or by posting it on the agency's internal or external website for employees to see. For more information, see DOL's FFCRA Notice Frequently Asked Questions.

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Does the Family Medical Leave Act (FMLA) apply to employees absent because of COVID-19 either because of quarantine or actual illness?
Updated March 20, 2020

The federal government has temporarily expanded the Family Medical Leave Act (FMLA) to provide for paid leave after the first two weeks of absence. The new Act – the Emergency Family and Medical Leave Expansion Act – is a subset of the Families First Coronavirus Response Act (FFCRA) and provides for Public Health Emergency Leave. This leave is explained in our FAQ on how the FFCRA applies to local governments.

At the state level, note that the Paid Family Medical Leave Program (PFML) has not been expanded and remains in effect as originally adopted. It is a state law which allows for partial wage replacement from the state if an employee or their family member has a “serious health condition.” The definition of “serious health condition under PFML is similar to the FMLA and would not apply to mild versions of COVID-19. Because the PFML benefit is not 100% of the employee’s pay, some agencies allow employees to use their accrued leave to supplement the PFML benefit up to 100% of pay. Agencies can choose to allow an employee supplement with their accrued leave but cannot require an employee do so. RCW 50A.15.060(2).

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What leave is available to employees if agency offices are closed?
Published March 19, 2020

The first thing to consider is whether the employee can telecommute. If so, the agency should allow the individual to telecommute pursuant to an adopted agency policy. (For more information and sample policies, see our Telecommuting page.)

If telecommuting is not an option, then the employee would need to use their accrued leave, such as sick leave, vacation leave or compensatory time. The the agency also could consider adopting short-term paid administrative leave or closure leave.

To avoid gift of public funds concerns, the agency must authorize paid leave in agency policy. The Washington State Attorney General’s Office issued a memorandum (2020) exploring the gift of public funds issue related to COVID-19, stating that “given the public health crisis our state is facing, there is a strong basis for state and local governments to make expenditures for the primary purpose of protecting and promoting public health which may have an incidental benefit on private citizens and entities.”

If the employee is out of accrued leave, then local policy may allow for the employee to access paid leave from a donated leave pool or the employee may be entitled to leave without pay. The employee may also be eligible for some state benefits, which the state Employment Securities Department has outlined in this helpful chart.

Note that if exempt employees perform work during the week, they must be paid for the full work week.

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UPDATED: What type of leave is available to an employee who cannot work due to school closures?
Updated March 31, 2020

New Federal Leave Requirements.

Through the Families First Coronavirus Response Act (FFCRA), the federal government adopted two new types of paid leave, both of which apply to school closures due to COVID-19 concerns. The two types of leave are explored in more detail in our FAQ on the FFCRA and are outlined briefly here:

  • Employees are entitled to two paid weeks of Emergency Paid Sick Leave for school closures. This is in addition to any standard sick leave already provided by the employer, and employees must be allowed to use this leave before any other accrued leave if desired. When this emergency sick leave is taken for the employee’s personal health or quarantine, it must be paid at 100% of the employee’s regular rate of pay up to certain maximums, but when taken due to school closures employers may (optionally) reduce the benefit to 2/3 of the employee’s regular rate of pay and may cap the pay at $200/day and $2,000 in the aggregate.
  • After the first two weeks of leave, employees who have been on payroll for 30 days or more are entitled to 10 paid weeks of Public Health Emergency Leave (also referred to as Expanded Family and Medical leave) for school closures. Employers must pay the employee at least 2/3 of the employee’s regular rate of pay. Pay is capped at $200/day and $10,000 in the aggregate.
  • Employees are eligible to use the paid leave from April 1, 2020 – December 31, 2020. Employers are responsible for paying this additional leave. Under the current law, private employers are entitled to a tax credit for these leave benefits paid to employees but local government employers are not.

Standard Sick Leave.

  • All employers in Washington State are required to provide paid sick leave to non-exempt employees, and RCW 49.46.210(a)(b)(iii) specifically authorizes non-exempt employees to use their sick leave for public health-related school closures. For more information, see L&I’s Paid Sick Leave and Coronavirus (COVID-19) Common Questions.
  • State law does not specifically address sick leave for exempt employees, but most agencies provide sick leave to exempt employees. You will need to consult your local policies to see whether public health-related school closures are an allowed use of paid sick leave for exempt employees and, if not, you may want to consider updating your policies.
  • Employers may require employees to supplement the federal leave benefits with accrued leave.

Administrative Leave or Other Paid Time Off. Agencies also may allow employees to use other paid time off to care for children who are home due to school closure, subject to local policy. Some agencies have created a new type of leave such as short-term paid "administrative" leave for such situations. With regard to other types of paid leave, the Washington State Attorney General’s Office issued a memorandum (2020) exploring the gift of public funds issue, stating that “given the public health crisis our state is facing, there is a strong basis for state and local governments to make expenditures for the primary purpose of protecting and promoting public health which may have an incidental benefit on private citizens and entities.” To avoid gift of public funds concerns, the agency must authorize these types of paid leave in agency policy.

But not Paid Family and Medical Leave (PFML). The Washington Paid Family and Medical Leave Program (PFML) is not available to employees who are caring for children due to school closures, as that law requires a serious health condition or illness for an employee to be eligible.

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Can a local govt. compel an employee to come to work if they are well but just don't feel comfortable coming to the workplace for health reasons?
Published March 20, 2020

As an initial matter, an employer should be sure to follow all CDC recommended practices regarding social distancing and sanitation to minimize employee fears of contracting the virus.

After that, an employer should determine whether the employee has protected leave (such as the need to care for a child at home due to no school) or a health condition that needs to be accommodated (such as an autoimmune disorder or mental health).

If there does not appear to be a valid reason for not coming in, an employer should nevertheless remember the “just cause” standard for imposing employee discipline and consult with its legal counsel prior to taking any action.

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We are onboarding an employee who will be able to work for us remotely. Can we complete the I-9 employment eligibility verification form remotely due to COVID-19 concerns?
Published March 25, 2020

Under normal circumstances, page 2 of the form requires in-person review of the new employee’s documentation, and this typically is done by the employer at the time a new employee starts work. There are some alternatives, however.

First, the Department of Homeland Security recently announced that, due to COVID-19 concerns, remote review and completion of page 2 of the I-9 form may occur when operations at a workplace are being conducted entirely remotely. This option would therefore not be available in situations where some number of essential employees are coming to the workplace. For more on this option, see this article from the Society for Human Resource Management (SHRM), which details the restrictions and limited circumstances under which this option is available.

There is another article from SHRM that addresses other alternatives to having a new employee come to the workplace in person for completion of page 2 of the I-9 form. The article explains that the I-9 document review process need not be conducted by an agency employee and could be undertaken by an individual (possibly even a family member) at the employee’s location. The SHRM contains the following passage:

Under the circumstances raised by COVID-19, USCIS will consider 'any person' even to include a family or household member," said Diane Butler, an attorney in the Seattle office of Davis Wright. "The employer must take steps to ensure that the person understands the obligation and takes the responsibility seriously.

There is also an option for having the verification occur at a “remote completion center” that is established for the purpose of meeting the I-9 verification requirements.

Neither of these options are standard practice for most local governments. If your agency is considering one of these options, it should consult with legal counsel prior to doing so to determine the best path forward.

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Can we conduct in-person interviews?
Published March 26, 2020

While the Governor’s Stay Home – Stay Healthy Order is in effect we strongly recommend that you conduct all interviews remotely. Even if the position is exempt from the Order as part of the “essential workforce,” your agency would need to identify a compelling reason to justify having the interviews in person.

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Economic Assistance and Eviction Moratoriums

Who has authority to prohibit utility shut offs during an emergency?
Published March 19, 2020

Local governments have broad powers of authority during an emergency under chapter 38.52 RCW. Additionally, the governor’s office may issue an order to prohibit utility shut offs under the provisions of RCW 43.06.220. Specifically, sub-section (1)(h) states that the governor may issue proclamations prohibiting “[s]uch other activities as he or she reasonably believes should be prohibited to help preserve and maintain life, health, property or the public peace.”

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Can a city or county allow for deferred payment of utility bills?
Published March 19, 2020

Yes, our topic page on Utility Discounts and Financial Assistance Programs provides legal authority, examples of defining eligibility, and sample codes. The Governor’s announcement for relief for businesses, workers, renters, and more on March 18 calls for public utilities in Washington State to consider waiving late fees for customers out of work due to COVID-19, or offering payment plans and expanding bill assistance programs.

A number of cities, towns, counties, and water/sewer districts are discussing and considering deferred utility payments, as some of them did during the federal government shutdown in January 2019. Our 2019 blog post Does the Shutdown Mean Shutoffs? provides good information on this topic.

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Does a city/county have the authority to prohibit evictions during an emergency period? Can a city/county make provisions for deferred rent payments during an emergency? What are the implications of this?
Updated March 19, 2020

UPDATE: On March 18, Gov. Inslee imposed a 30-day statewide moratorium on residential evictions for non-payment of rent.

The answer is unclear. The City of Seattle adopted an emergency moratorium, but Seattle has broader authority than most other jurisdictions. In the Seattle eviction proclamation, the mayor cites to the city charter, and city code, as well as the state constitution. In particular, SMC 10.02.020 allows the mayor to proclaim “such other orders as are imminently necessary for the protection of life and property.”

Beyond that, the procedures for evictions are governed by state law and are addressed through the judicial processes in county superior court. While the policy reasons for such an order are understandable, it is not clear, even in an emergency, whether a local government can adopt a measure that would prohibit the use of a judicial process that is otherwise available under state law.

Although first class and code cities under state law have broad powers of local self-government (including emergency management), they do not have authority to take actions that conflict with state law. Landlords may argue that such eviction orders are preempted by the Washington Residential Landlord Tenant Act (chapter 59.18 RCW).

Since eviction is a process governed by state statute, the Governor may be the most appropriate individual to issue an emergency order restricting residential evictions. Jurisdictions considering such measures should consult with their legal counsel.

A local agency, as a landlord, may be able to provide for deferred rent during an emergency if the specific facts warrant it. For example, if the facility in which the tenant’s business is located is closed due to the emergency, then suspending or deferring rent would be an appropriate measure. The broader question of whether rent relief may be provided should be deferred to a time when more is known about the overall impact of the emergency on the tenant’s business.

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Can cities and counties offer grants or low interest loans to local businesses as financial relief due to COVID-19 impacts?
Updated March 26, 2020

The Washington State Constitution prohibits Gifts of Public Funds “except for the necessary support of the poor and infirm.” There is a related prohibition in the State Constitution on the lending of credit by public entities (also described on the linked webpage).

Based on our understanding of this provision, MRSC has historically advised that financial contributions by local government entities to private businesses, either in the form of a grant or a loan, are generally prohibited. We have also previously advised that there must be a proper public purpose or public benefit resulting from such expenditures beyond providing financial support to a local business. 

However, the Washington Attorney General issued a memo to state and local governments clarifying that public funds may be spent “for the primary purpose of protecting and promoting public health which may have an incidental benefit on private citizens and entities.” This may provide more flexibility for local governments to assist local businesses.

We recommend discussing any proposal related to financial assistance with your legal counsel. In addition, both the state and federal governments have either introduced or adopted significant measures intended to provide economic relief to small businesses.

For more on these new measures and what local governments can do to support local businesses, see MRSC’s webpage on Coronavirus Economic Impacts and Mitigation.

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Last Modified: April 01, 2020