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Police and Law Enforcement Personnel Management

This page provides information and resources on personnel issues unique to law enforcement for Washington cities and counties.


Overview

Unlike the majority of a public agency's other employees, law enforcement personnel typically work around the clock and often are subject to civil service rules not applicable to the rest of the staff, making hiring, firing and day-to-day supervision more of a challenge. In addition, the nature of the work itself places unique pressures on the employees and their families that affect job performance.


Pay and Benefits

Police officers enjoy base salaries above the national average, which can then be augmented by shift differential pay, longevity pay, overtime or comp time, and uniform and/or equipment allowances.  Additionally, police enjoy benefits, retirement packages, and insurance coverage options that usually exceed those offered by private employers.

Pay and Benefits Resources


Recruitment

The statutory authority governing the recruitment of law executives and police officers is as follows

  • RCW 35.21.333 — Lists qualifications for Chief of Police or Marshal  
  • RCW 36.28.025 — Lists qualifications for County Sheriff
  • RCW 35.21.334 — Requires background investigations for Chief of Police or Marshal
  • RCW 43.101.080 (19) — Requires candidates for police officer take a psychological examination and a polygraph test

Recruitment Resources


Training and Assessment

RCW 43.101.200 requires that all law enforcement personnel (except volunteers, and reserve officers) begin his or her training within six months of being hired, and that this training complies with standards adopted by the Washington State Criminal Justice Training Commission (WSCJTC). Washington State is one of only a few states that establishes training standards for law enforcement personnel. 

The WSCJTC website includes a complete description of this training requirement as well as a "Frequently Asked Questions" section. 

Training

WSCJTC offers a 720-hour Basic Law Enforcement Academy on multiple dates, in multiple locations, throughout the year. Individuals hired as peace officers have six months from the beginning of employment to commence this training. 

Additional external resources are:

  • Local Government Institute: Model Law Enforcement Training Procedures Guide (2010) — The webpage offers a link to an order form for this publication
  • International Association of Chiefs of Police: IACP Training — Offers a variety of training opportunities from online, self-paced education sessions and webinars, to hosted, in-person training events and conferences

 Assessment

Police assessment centers offer a testing process in which candidates participate in a series of systematic, job-related, real-life situations while being observed and evaluated by experts in policing, supervision, and management. The IACP offers an overview of Testing and Assessment Centers.

The Washington Association of Sheriffs and Police Chiefs (WASPC) does not operate Assessment Centers but recommends Public Safety Testing as a contractor for this valuable service.


Hiring

Lateral Transfer

Lateral entry/transfer for a police officer is similar to a qualification standard that applicants for certain police department positions must meet in order to be eligible to apply for the position. In general, lateral transfer candidates must already have a certain level of experience in law enforcement and be employed or have been employed by a police department.

Examples of Lateral Transfer Requiring Prior Service for a Specific Time Period

Generally, these examples require applicants to have been employed on a full-time basis for a period of time exceeding 12 consecutive months and not had a lapse of employment for a period exceeding the previous 12 months.

Examples of Lateral Transfers Requiring Experience in Law Enforcement

Some jurisdictions simply require the applicant have general experience in law enforcement but do not specify a time period.

Special Limited Commission/ Community Service Officers

A Community Service Officer (CSO) provides support in crime prevention, investigation, and response where full police powers are unnecessary and assists police officers in upholding law and order. Most CSOs are specially or limited commissioned peace officers and some are non-sworn (civilian) positions without powers of arrest. Most do not carry firearms, due to liability issues, but some are authorized to carry less lethal weapons such as tasers, batons, or pepper spray. All CSOs receive training in self-defense tactics.

Areas that tend to be covered by CSOs can include animal control, parking enforcement, traffic control, and airport, park, and school security.

Examples of Local Codes Allowing for Community Service Officers

Volunteer Programs

In addition to using CSOs to augment their workforce, police departments may also recruit volunteers to serve their communities in a variety of capacities, such as block watch captain or to support the administrative functions of a department. These volunteers do not have powers of arrest. 

Run by the IACP, the Volunteers in Police Services (VIPS) Program is a national resource that provides support and resources to law enforcement agencies interested in developing or enhancing a volunteer program. 

Examples of Local Jurisdictions Offering Volunteer Opportunities


Special Personnel Issues

Pregnancy

Congress enacted the Pregnancy Discrimination Act (PDA) in 1978 to make clear that discrimination based on pregnancy, childbirth, or related medical conditions is a form of sex discrimination prohibited by Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 (Title VII). In simple terms, this act requires that employers treat pregnancy like any other injury or illness that renders the employee temporarily “disabled.”

In the 2011 Pregnancy Guidelines for Federal Law Enforcement, the Women in Federal Law Enforcement Foundation stated that a pregnant law enforcement officer “may be able to continue to perform in her usual, full-duty, full range of assignments up to the time she and her doctor make a determination it is no longer an option.”   The guidelines also recommend that departments avoid assigning pregnant officers to “units in which the work involves the likelihood of encountering toxic chemicals” as well as “units in which the work involves a high likelihood of suffering trauma.”

Examples of Local Policies That Address Pregnancy

  • Seattle Police Department Manual Sec. 4.080 — Allows pregnant employees to request limited duty assignments (per Seattle Municipal Code Sec. 4.10.010), family and medical leave, and pregnancy disability leave. Also allows them to claim long term disability benefits and/or to buy back service credit after they return to regular paid status or separate from employment
  • Medina Police Department Standards Sec. 13.14 — With department approval, a pregnant employee can be assigned to light duty if her physician finds she in unable to “perform full duty” or “at the point where her issue uniform will no longer fit, whichever is first.” Section 13.13 details light duty

Problematic Performance

As with all workplaces, there will be some employees who do not meet performance expectations. Law enforcement is a profession in which ethics and ethical conduct play an important role. Ethical mandates that pertain to law enforcement officers include acting impartially, exercising discretion, using only necessary force, and maintaining confidentiality, integrity, and a professional image at all times. Because law enforcement is a public-facing position, it is critical that departments set clear guidelines as to expected behavior on the job and the repercussions for officers not meeting those requirements.

Resources for Problematic Behavior

  • US Dept. of Justice
  • National Institute of JusticeThe Measurement of Police Integrity (2000) — Explores police officers’ understanding of rules concerning police misconduct, perceptions of disciplinary fairness, and willingness to report misconduct

Domestic Violence Involving Law Enforcement Officers

According to the IACP, domestic violence among law enforcement officers occurs as frequently as among the general population. Resources addressing this issue are as follows:


Job-related Stress and Trauma

Law enforcement officers can be confronted with situations that can create emotional and mental burdens, which can then spillover into family, friends, and coworkers. The following are resources related to different types of stress and/or approaches for supporting law enforcement officers and other first responders. 

Resources for General, Job-related Stress 

Trauma-induced Stress/Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder

After a critical or traumatic incident, it is common practice to provide critical incident stress debriefing to first responders, including police. For example, the King County Sheriff’s General Order Manual Section 2.08.025 details the use and format of a critical incident stress debriefing and follows this with suggestions of counseling/support options for those who need additional services, such as the King County Emergency Medical Services or the American Red Cross Disaster Mental Health Services.

Additional resources are as follows:

  • Emergency Management: Beyond Debriefing: How to Address Responders Emotional Health (2013) — Discusses the role of critical incident stress debriefing and other practices and interventions that can be used to help first responders in the aftermath of a critical incident
  • First Responder Support Network — Provides educational treatment programs to promote recovery from stress and critical incidents experienced by first responders and their families based on the West Coast.

Examples of Local Programs Designed to Address Trauma for First Responders

  • Kent Police Department's Peer Support Policy and Program — Discusses the department's Critical Incident Stress Management Response program and the Peer Support Team program for staff
  • Lakewood’s Training Resilient Leaders program — Funded through a Department of Justice grant, this 8-week pilot program is meant to precondition officers to better cope with the stresses inherent in their role as first-responders
  • Renton — Officers are encouraged to use any or all of the following resources: peer support, police chaplain, the city’s Enforcement Assistant Program (EAP), “Safe Call Now” hotline for first responders (206-459-3020) and Copline, which offers a peer-to-peer support line for law enforcement officers (800-267-5463)
  • Redmond — The city contracts with a peer support counselor who is available on-site on a limited basis to supplement the city’s ongoing EAP program. The service has proven quite helpful and the city is considering how to integrate it into the EAP program
  • Whidbey CareNet — This is a nonprofit organization through which local providers offer free mental health and counseling services to relieve the stress and trauma experienced by emergency responders
  • Spokane’s TEAM conference — Organized by the Spokane Police Department’s Mental Health Steering Committee, the focus of this annual event is how best to “serve individuals in crisis," which includes first responders

Chaplaincy Programs

A law enforcement chaplain is clergy with special interest and training for providing pastoral care in law enforcement. The International Conference of Police Chaplains maintains a website with a wealth of information and resources. Locally, the Washington Community Chaplain Corps (WC3) acts as a supplemental agency for incidents of crises and trauma when chaplain resources are limited or nonexistent.

Examples of Local Chaplaincy Programs


Last Modified: October 30, 2017