Coronavirus (COVID-19) Emergency Declarations and Authority
This page provides information on local emergency powers, statutes, and enforcement in Washington State related to the novel coronavirus pandemic (COVID-19), including examples of emergency declarations, stay-at-home orders, face mask directives, and other issues, as well as examples of resolutions terminating the local state of emergency.
It is part of MRSC's Coronavirus (COVID-19) Resources for Local Governments series.
We are no longer posting regular updates to this page. See below for information on local emergency powers; for the most recent State of Washington emergency guidance, see our page COVID-19 Governor's Proclamations and State Guidance.
On February 29, 2020, Gov. Jay Inslee declared a statewide emergency due to the spread of coronavirus (COVID-19), and the governor has continued to issue further orders limiting public gatherings and closing many businesses.
In addition, many local governments have also declared local emergencies, which allows local officials to bypass procedural requirements related to expenditures and contracting, among other things, as well as potentially accessing state and federal emergency funds if such funds are made available.
- Local governments should carefully track all funds expended to combat COVID-19 in order to support any future reimbursement from state and federal sources.
- Any purchase, public works project, or service for which a competitive process is waived must be an explicit necessity and directly related to the emergency. (For more information, see our Competitive Bidding Exemptions page.)
- A memo issued by the Attorney General on March 17, 2020 concludes that generally speaking, local governments have broad authority to make expenditures combating COVID-19 without violating the gift of public funds prohibition because such efforts further fundamental public purposes such as protecting public health and welfare. On April 6, 2020, the Attorney General's Office issued further guidance concluding that under the present circumstances, local governments may provide cash assistance to low-income individuals and, with sufficient safeguards in place, small business "loans or grants are likely permissible if a local government can establish a clear nexus between such programs and either protecting the local economy or promoting compliance with public health guidelines."
In Washington State, the Department of Health (DOH) and the local health boards and districts are responsible for health planning and are granted authority for emergency planning and response. The Washington State Office of the Attorney General developed a memorandum in 2008 – Public Health Emergencies – which details the authority of local health officers and boards as well as other local jurisdictions during public health emergencies.
Below are selected statutes related to local emergency declarations, emergency expenditures, and related topics.
General Legal Citations
- Ch. 38.52 RCW — Emergency Management
- RCW 38.52.070(2) — Emergency declarations for all "political subdivisions," defined in RCW 38.52.010 to mean "any county, city or town"
- RCW 38.52.091 — Authorizes local emergency management organizations to collaborate with other public and private agencies via a mutual aid or interlocal agreement
- RCW 39.04.280 — Competitive bidding waivers for emergency public works and emergency purchases
- RCW 39.80.060 — Emergency architecture and engineering contracts
- Ch. 42.12 RCW — Continuity of Government Act in the event of enemy attack or catastrophic incident
- RCW 43.06.220 — Powers of governor pursuant to emergency proclamations
- WAC 246-100-070 — Enforcement of local health officer orders
City/Town Statutes - Nondebatable Emergency Expenditures
- RCW 35A.33.080 — Code cities operating with an annual budget
- RCW 35A.34.140 — Code cities operating with a biennial budget
- RCW 35.33.081 — Non-code cities and towns less than 300,000 population operating with an annual budget
- RCW 35.34.140 — Non-code cities operating with a biennial budget
- RCW 35.32A.060 — Cities over 300,000 population
- RCW 36.40.180 — Nondebatable emergency expenditures
- RCW 36.32.270 — Competitive bidding waivers for emergency public works and emergency purchases (references RCW 39.04.280)
Governor’s Emergency Authority
For information on the governor's emergency powers and authority, see our page COVID-19 Governor's Proclamations and State Guidance.
Federal Emergency Declarations
For information on federal emergency declarations that might impact local governments in Washington, see our page COVID-19 Governor's Proclamations and State Guidance.
Examples of Local Emergency Declarations
Below are selected examples of emergency proclamations issued by cities, counties, and special purpose districts. These documents are provided as examples only, and this is not a comprehensive list of jurisdictions that have declared an emergency or the latest actions that those jurisdictions have taken.
- Anacortes Resolution No. 2082 (March 16, 2020) – Ratifying emergency proclamation issued by mayor and establishing temporary procedures, including closing city hall/library to the public, increasing sanitation of parks/public spaces, revising council procedures, authorizing telecommuting expenditures, and freezing most hiring and equipment replacements.
- Auburn Emergency Proclamation for Coronavirus (March 5, 2020) – Authorizes temporary staffing/expenditures; waives competitive bidding requirements. Department heads/designees may enter into contracts up to $25,000; larger contracts require mayor’s signature.
- Edmonds Ordinance No. 4177 (March 22, 2020) – Amending the city’s emergency management procedures to delegate greater authority to the mayor to respond quickly to emergency situations
- Issaquah Emergency Proclamation for Coronavirus (March 6, 2020) – Simple one-page emergency declaration by mayor; directs city administrator/designee to provide regular updates to city council.
- Pacific Emergency Proclamation for Coronavirus (March 6, 2020) – Simple emergency declaration from a small mayor-council city.
- Redmond Emergency Proclamation for Coronavirus (March 2, 2020) – Simple, one-page emergency declaration.
- Snoqualmie Emergency Proclamation for Coronavirus (March 6, 2020) – Authorizes use of emergency powers and states that city will make every reasonable effort to respond but may be overwhelmed
- Woodland Emergency Proclamation for Coronavirus (March 13, 2020) – Directs city council to convene as soon as possible to request ratification of this proclamation and emergency orders.
- Des Moines Emergency Proclamation for Coronavirus (March 5, 2020) – Simple one-page emergency declaration; authorizes use of emergency powers, including waiving competitive bidding requirements.
- Maple Valley Emergency Proclamation for Coronavirus (March 13, 2020) – Authorizes assistant city manager to assume duties of city manager in case city manager is deceased or unable to perform duties.
- Mercer Island Emergency Proclamation for Coronavirus (March 5, 2020) – Simple emergency declaration; clarifies that it is not a proclamation of civil emergency or a finding of public danger under RCW 35A.13.030.
- Shoreline Emergency Proclamation Proclamation for Coronavirus (March 4, 2020) – Includes city council resolution ratifying the declaration, and the council agenda item introduction and background for the adopted resolution.
- Harrah Emergency Proclamation for Coronavirus (March 18, 2020)
- Yarrow Point Proclamation of Emergency for Coronavirus (March 16, 2020)
- Yakima County Emergency Proclamation for Coronavirus (March 12, 2020) – Simple emergency declaration authorizing use of emergency powers; authorizes county to waive competitive bidding and seek state and federal assistance.
Charter Cities and Counties
- King County Emergency Proclamation for Coronavirus (March 1, 2020) – Detailed emergency declaration/executive order. Temporarily authorizes overtime, temporary staff appointments, and changes to solid waste collection; suspends competitive bidding and collective bargaining agreements.
- Pierce County Emergency Proclamation for Coronavirus (March 6, 2020) – Simple, one-page emergency declaration
- Seattle Emergency Proclamation for Coronavirus (March 3, 2020) – Detailed emergency declaration for mayor-council city; temporarily delegates certain authority to department directors and waives competitive bidding, budgeting requirements, and permitting for emergency facilities.
- Yakima Emergency Proclamation for Coronavirus (March 12, 2020) – Authorizes emergency actions including ordering areas of quarantine, altering meetings, and waiving competitive bidding. Includes city council resolution ratifying declaration.
Special Purpose Districts
- Covington Water District Resolution No. 4409 (March 24, 2020) – Emergency declaration due to COVID-19; also temporarily suspends locking of meters, filing of liens, and certain fees until May 31, 2020.
- Cowlitz County PUD No. 1 Resolution No. 2768 (March 14, 2020) – Authorizes general manager to declare an emergency, waive competitive bidding requirements, require non-essential employees to be sent home, and establish a limited duration supplemental leave program for employees. (See "Employee Pay and Leave Issues" section below for the supplemental leave policy.)
- Port of Port Townsend COVID-19 Declaration of Emergency (March 25, 2020) – Emergency declaration by port district executive director, including commission resolution ratifying the declaration and authorizing rent deferrals up to 3 months for port tenants most directly impacted by COVID-19, provided that back rents must be repaid within 12 months.
- Woodinville Water District Resolution No. 3959 (March 17, 2020) – Emergency declaration due to COVID-19; addresses waiver of competitive bidding requirements, closures of public facilities, suspension of liens and water service termination, and steps to ensure uninterrupted operation of water and sewer systems.
- Woodland Resolution No. 720 (April 6, 2020) – Ratifying countywide delegation of authority to the Cowlitz 2 Fire and Rescue incident commander; authorizes commander to incur expenses up to $100,000 with allocation of expenses consistent with county’s interlocal emergency management agreement.
Emergency Court Orders
- Mercer Island and Newcastle Municipal Court Emergency Coronavirus Orders (March 13, 2020) – Administrative order suspending court rules until May 31, 2020. Contested civil infractions and pending criminal cases pending are continued to June 2020. Court will be closed from March 13, 2020 to April 24, 2020.
- King County Superior Court Emergency Coronavirus Orders (March 11, 2020) – Two emergency orders: one automatically excusing seniors, pregnant women, and other high-risk populations from jury service, and the other allowing telephone or remote arguments and testimony for non-trial hearings.
- Whatcom County Superior Court Emergency Order Postponing Jury Trials (March 11, 2020) – Administrative order postponing all jury trials due to coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic.
Stay-At-Home/Shelter In Place Orders
On March 23, 2020, Governor Inslee issued a statewide stay-at-home order which was subsequently extended and amended a number of times. For more information on this order, see our page on COVID-19 Governor's Proclamations and State Guidance.
In addition to this statewide order, some local jurisdictions have issued their own stay-at-home orders. In some instances these orders were issued shortly before the governor issued his statewide order, while in other examples the local orders go further than the governor's order.
General Stay-at-Home Orders
- Anacortes Mayoral Directive to Stay Home (March 23, 2020) – Directs residents to stay home except for essential business and governmental services and essential public infrastructure construction; includes examples of each category
- Everett Mayoral Directive to Stay Home (March 20, 2020) – Directs residents to stay home except for essential business and governmental services and essential public infrastructure construction; includes examples of each category
- Kittitas County Stay-at-Home Order (March 23, 2020) – Includes enforcement provisions/penalties and link to federal website for more information on what activities are essential.
Closing Hotels and Tourist Attractions
- Chelan County Resolution No. 2020-38 (April 6, 2020) – Orders all short-term and vacation rentals to cease renting accommodation and close. Additionally, all campgrounds are closed and camping is prohibited as is use of any vehicle, recreational or otherwise, for camping, sleeping, or occupancy while not traveling in Chelan County. Chelan County let its short-term rental ban expire on May 4, but the resolution is retained here as an example.
- Ocean Shores Executive Order 2020-04 (March 25, 2020) – Closing all hotels, motels, RV parks, short-term rentals, and other short-term lodging facilities due to COVID-19 pandemic. Includes subsequent orders amending and extending the initial order through May 18.
Emergency Orders Regarding Face Masks and Vaccinations
The governor and the state secretary of health have imposed various requirements for face masks and vaccinations against COVID-19; for current statewide requirements see our COVID-19 Governor's Proclamations and State Guidance page.
In addition, some local jurisdictions have imposed their own more stringent requirements at various points during the pandemic. Below are selected examples; please note that these are provided as examples only and may not reflect the current requirements in these jurisdictions.
- Clallam County Public Health Order Requiring Proof of Vaccination to Enter Restaurants and Bars (September 2, 2021) – Requires proof of full vaccination against COVID-19 to enter restaurants/bars; exempts children under 12 who are not yet eligible for vaccination. Includes legal authority, enforcement plan, and discussion of face masks and vaccinations for employees. Effective until revoked or governor terminates statewide emergency.
- King County Public Health Order Requiring Proof of Vaccination to Enter Restaurants, Bars, and Entertainment/Recreation Facilities (revised October 4, 2021) – Requiring people 12+ to show proof of full COVID-19 vaccination, or negative PCR test administered in past 72 hours, to enter indoor restaurants, bars, and entertainment/recreational facilities, as well as outdoor events with 500+ people. Small restaurants/bars with a seating capacity under 12 people have longer to comply.
- King County Directive to Wear Face Coverings (effective May 18, 2020) – Strongly urges people to wear face masks where 6-foot social distancing may not be possible and requiring businesses to post signage advising individuals to wear face coverings on the premises. Includes original health officer directive as well as FAQs.
- Langley Emergency Proclamation Requiring Face Masks in Downtown Core (May 6, 2020) – Requiring residents and visitors to wear face masks within the central business core, due to an increase in visitors and some local businesses resuming limited activities.
- Ocean Shores Executive Order 2020-12 (issued April 29, 2020 and amended May 5) – Executive order and amendment strongly recommending everyone wear cloth face masks when interacting with people outside of their household and in public spaces through June 30. Also addresses social distancing, hand sanitizer, and other cleanliness guidelines.
- San Juan County Health Officer Order No. 2020-04 (May 15, 2020) – Requiring customers to wear cloth face masks within indoor businesses countywide beginning with Phase 2 of the "Safe Start Washington" plan. Violations of the order are misdemeanors punishable by fine and arrest.
Enforcement of Emergency Orders
Generally, state and local agencies are prioritizing education and outreach regarding emergency public health orders over enforcement, in hopes of gaining voluntary compliance. Some state agencies have expanded their options to include fines and citations (for example, the Department of Labor and Industries May 26, 2020 emergency rule).
However, as the crisis drags on and deepens, some agencies are considering whether greater enforcement actions may be necessary. Below are examples.
- Jefferson County COVID-19 Food Service Enforcement Order (August 11, 2020) – Emergency order by county public health officer requiring all food service establishments to comply with state and local COVID-19 public health orders and authorizing county officials to conduct inspections and, if necessary, suspend or revoke operating permits for noncompliance.
- Kirkland Ordinance No. O-4721 (March 31, 2020) – Temporarily makes it a misdemeanor to knowingly violate a lawful order of a public officer at the federal, state, county or local level in direct response to a declared proclaimed emergency or disaster affecting the city. Expires April 30, 2020.
- Spokane Regional Health District COVID-19 Enforcement Actions for Non-Essential Businesses that Remain Open (2020) – Three-phase strategy, with supporting legal documents and instructions to law enforcement officers, for enforcing Proclamation 20-25 (stay-at-home order). Begins with outreach and determination of whether business is essential; after multiple contacts, escalates to injunction/temporary restraining order closing business.
Terminating the Local State of Emergency
As the state reopens and vaccination rates rise, some local governments have begun discussions of ending their local states of emergency. Below are examples; we will add to this section as more examples become available.
- Bainbridge Island Resolution No. 2021-11 (July 13, 2021) – Terminates local emergency declaration and emergency procurement authorization; includes city manager's proclamation as well as city council resolution ratifying the proclamation.
- Ellensburg Resolution No. 2021-20 (July 6, 2021) – Rescinding COVID-19 emergency declaration; extends emergency orders related to utility shutoffs/late fees and temporary downtown “streateries.” City boards, commissions, and committees will hold in-person meetings with virtual attendance options.
- Spokane Resolution No. 2021-0050 (June 7, 2021) – City council resolution terminating the local COVID-19 emergency declared the previous year and any associated emergency orders such as hiring/contracting freezes and emergency expenditure limitations; city is no longer in emergency response posture but "new normal" for operations.