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Ask MRSC - Public Works and Utilities

Below are selected “Ask MRSC” inquiries we have received from local governments throughout Washington State related to public works and utilities. Click on any question to see the answer.

These questions are for educational purposes only. All questions and answers have been edited and adapted for posting to the MRSC website, and all identifying information, including the inquirer’s name and agency name, has been removed.

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Reviewed: November 2023

In MRSC’s opinion, no. The building permit is unconnected to the delinquent utility account and the city cannot precondition issuance of a building permit on payment of a utility bill.

There are two reasons why this type of procedure is legally suspect. The first is that the statutory provisions that relate to collection of delinquent utility bills do not provide for this type of collection method. So, it is not clear that agencies have the authority to link the issuance of a building permit to payment of delinquent accounts.

Second, this type of requirement likely would violate the provisions of RCW 82.02.020. That statute prohibits local governments from imposing any tax, fee, or charge, directly or indirectly, on the development, subdivision, classification, or reclassification of land except as specifically authorized by statute. A city can recover its actual costs of processing applications, inspections, and reviewing plans, however collection of delinquent utility payments is unrelated to the costs to the city of processing the application.

One case involving allowable charges that may be imposed on the issuance of building permits is Home Builders Association of Kitsap County v. Bainbridge Island (2007). The court in that case invalidated some charges that were being imposed by the city based on RCW 82.02.020. The charges in that case were related more closely to the building permit issuance than trying to recover delinquent utility bills.

Again, our conclusion is that this type of charge would be prohibited by RCW 82.02.020.

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Reviewed: August 2023

The responses to the poll MRSC conducted asking if cities use chip seal on arterials are presented in these Poll Results Tables. They are organized by “yes” and “no” with comments included, as well.

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Reviewed: August 2023

Below are some code examples of processes for waiving sewer and/or water connection fees. Some jurisdictions use system development charges and connection fees interchangeably, so you’ll see a few instances of that below (e.g., Concrete and Yelm). You’ll also see this reflected in the examples on MRSC's Affordable Housing Techniques and Incentives page section on Reduction/Waiver of Fees.

The statutes that authorize loans or waivers related to assisting low-income persons with utility charges and housing development include RCW 35.92.380, RCW 35.21.685, and RCW 35.21.305. And per this recent MRSC blog post, New Bills Address Utility Connection Charges, Service Disconnection for Non-Payment, a new bill allows city and town utilities to waive connection fees for certain organizations that provide affordable and emergency housing. All have low-income criteria because of the state constitution’s prohibition on gifts of public funds except for necessary assistance for the poor or infirm. If the low-income criteria are not met, then the connection charges need to be sufficient to cover the actual work performed by the utility.

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Reviewed: July 2023

Below are a few resources for both the residential and commercial energy codes:

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Reviewed: June 2023

We ran a custom City & County Websites Search using the search term “community yard sale” and found these search results for city examples and these search results for county examples. We did an additional search using the phrase “community garage sale” and found these additional search results.

The Marysville Junk in the Trunk event webpage provides a lot of information, including an online registration option and a downloadable Vendor Registration Form (PDF file download). There is a disclaimer included on the form as well as a list of vendor guidelines that may be helpful. Both pages must be signed by the applicant.

If you have questions specifically about liability disclaimer language, we recommend talking to your city attorney as well as your risk pool/insurer. They will be in the best position to advise the city.

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Reviewed: May 2023

Below are some city code examples related to special event venues (i.e., events occurring outside private residences):

  • Grandview Municipal Code Sec. 5.25.050 – Special event permit applications are required for a variety of event types (including some private events) and must include provisions for parking. Events conducted in event centers, churches, schools, and wineries are exempt from permit requirements (see Section 5.25.030).
  • Normandy Park Municipal Code Sec. 4.12.110 – Special event permits may be denied if parking or shuttle accommodations are not adequate to prevent impacts on general parking and traffic near the event venue.

Below are some county code examples:

  • Clark County Code Sec. 40.240.290 – Regulations for commercial events including weddings, receptions, farm dinners, or similar events. Includes event parking requirements.
  • Pierce County Code Sec. 18J.15.190.D.8 – Outdoor receptions or parties are not permitted at public outdoor event facilities, with the exception of wedding ceremonies that comply with amplified noise restrictions.

Also, the City of Pasadena in California has a helpful webpage on Special Events FAQs ( see If an event is on private property, what type of permits do I need?). The city defines “party, gathering, or events” in the Municipal Code Section 9.43.010, but doesn’t include it as a use in its zoning tables in Section 17.20.020). Rather, it includes clubs, lodges, private meeting halls – this might be a place where parties, gatherings, or events are held, but they could also potentially be held in other private property settings.

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Reviewed: March 2022

There is no state law that requires building inspectors to be licensed. However, agencies are still required by RCW 19.27.050 to enforce the state building code (including any local changes the agency has adopted). This can be done by in-house employees, or by contract with another jurisdiction or private company to act as your building official.

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Reviewed: February 2022

There is no legal prohibition against shutting water off during the winter months. That said, to shut off water, you’ll need to follow precise steps. The best place to start is our Utility Liens and Shut-offs tool, which walks you through the necessary steps on water shut off.

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Reviewed: February 2022


  • WA State Dept. of Transportation - Provides information on federal and state funding programs administered through Local Programs, including the pedestrian and bicycle, safe routes to school, surface transportation block grant, and transportation alternatives programs.
  • MRSC - Complete Streets – Includes a section on the state’s complete streets grant program.
  • MRSC - Sidewalk Construction, Maintenance, and Repair – Includes examples of local sidewalk repair programs, including some of those found below.
  • Bellingham has a transportation fund for projects like sidewalk improvements. That page includes links to the city’s six-year transportation improvement program. This FAQ lists all the main funding sources for the 6-Year TIP.
  • Seattle’s Sidewalk Development Program - Includes projects funded by a voter-approved levy. Here’s a link to more information on their Sidewalk Repair Program.
  • Shoreline Sidewalks webpage – Includes information on the city’s 2018 voter-approved sidewalks program and sidewalk funding.
  • This Tacoma webpage on Sidewalks describes Washington State law regarding maintenance of sidewalks in the right-of-way. It includes other helpful information, like a Q and A on tree damage to sidewalks and the potential for a local improvement district to fund sidewalks.


  • MRSC - Urban Forestry - Includes links to resources like urban forestry plans and programs (which often include funding sources) and the WA Dept. of Natural Resources Urban and Community Forestry webpage with grants and financial assistance. DNR is currently accepting applications for community forestry assistance grants (projects to support a wide variety of urban forestry projects that help create healthier communities). Also on this page, this document from the American Public Works Association includes sources of funding for urban forestry programs.
  • EPA’s Grants webpage - Includes a link to Grants.Gov, a searchable grants database, and other grant opportunities.
  • City funds - In some communities, city funds are only available if the street tree is on the city’s “street tree responsibility list” or the city’s responsibility, in other words.
  • Look to a neighborhood group to help fund and plant trees in their respective neighborhoods.
  • Look to a local tree organization to see if it can help fund some street trees.
  • You could develop a street tree permit, whereby you reinvest the permit fees into new or replacement trees.

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Reviewed: February 2022

No, a town may not use town equipment to plow snow from private property including personal driveways. One reason is that the Washington State Constitution, Article VIII, Section 7, prohibits gifts of public funds or resources to private individuals or entities.

Further, town equipment and time should not be used to plow private property even if the property owner pays for the cost of the service – that is because there is no “proper municipal purpose” for a city to provide those services. Private companies and individuals provide snow plowing services; no statutes in chapter 35.27 RCW grant authority to a town to engage in such activities.

So, the resident could be referred to snow removal businesses that service private roads and driveways.

Here is a link to MRSC’s topic page Snow and Ice Removal Policies with legal authorities and sample policies. In addition, here is a link to MRSC’s 2019 blogpost on Dealing with Snow and Ice on Streets and Sidewalks.

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Reviewed: January 2022

The Washington legislature has not yet passed authorizing legislation for community choice aggregation (CCA). CCA allows local governments to aggregate or pool the electricity loads of residents, businesses, and/or municipal facilities and purchase or develop power on behalf of these aggregated customers. CCA has been used to drive down prices and to significantly increase demand for renewable/clean energy.

The Lean Energy webpage lists the states that have already adopted legislation allowing for CCA and shows Washington State as “watch list/potential” for CCA, so it may be that something considered in a future legislative session. Here is a link to an article with more information on CCAs and the states who are using this model. And here is a link to the Washington Utilities and Transportation Commission webpage describing green power programs available in Washington State.

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Reviewed: March 2021

MRSC has a Local Ballot Measure Database where we searched for the results of local ballot measures for general obligation (GO) bonds since 2011 (as far back as our data goes). The results of that search show that there have been a total of 10 ballot measures with 6 passing and 4 failing.

We also have a Revenue Guide for Washington Cities and Towns which has a section that discusses general obligation (GO) bond levies which we would encourage you to review. It recommends that you consult your city’s bond counsel early in the process.

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Reviewed: January 2021

We are aware of a couple of testing programs in the cities of Vancouver and Lynden. See this Bellingham Herald story (Here’s where Whatcom sewage is being sampled for COVID-19 and what it might tell us) reporting on the Lynden testing program that includes testing at two schools in the city. Here is a Vancouver press release detailing the testing program there. The Vancouver page includes a few links to additional references. We monitor a lot of the local newspapers in Washington for general local government news and have not noticed any reports other than the Vancouver and Lynden programs. Our guess is that there are probably not a lot who are doing this.

We sent a survey out to public works directors in cities over 20,000 population. You can view the results here. The results so far indicate that one other city, Spokane, has participated in a pilot study for wastewater COVID-19 testing.

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Reviewed: October 2020

No, mixing rosters is not permissible. Additionally, you will confuse contractors and vendors if you try to manage their participation between multiple rosters. It could also lead to a protest if a vendor/contractor did not get a solicitation because you were trying to manage projects between separate lists.

The agency’s contract for the MRSC Rosters service refers to MRSC Rosters as being the exclusive roster for public works projects (and related to certain purchases via a vendor roster if the agency’s contract with MRSC includes that service), so that is our expectation. MRSC Rosters is a service that we provide to agencies, but it’s important for each agency to consult with its legal counsel to ensure that the agency is in compliance with all legal and local policy requirements that apply to that agency specifically.

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Reviewed: September 2020

The contractor would not be required to provide the Payment/Performance bond if it is being waived, which requires 10% retainage being held instead. However, if this bond waiver option is selected, then you will need to hold retainage even though retainage can be waived in the small works roster process. The only small works roster process where you can waive both retainage and the bond is for limited public works projects.

Some agencies do request separate payment and performance bonds. This waiver could waive both; you would need to determine what you will require and communicate the requirement to your bidders.

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Reviewed: July 2020

Yes, stormwater utility service falls within the scope of the definition of “system of sewerage” in RCW 35.67.010, which includes the following:

  1. Sanitary sewage collection, treatment, and/or disposal facilities and services, on-site or off-site sanitary sewerage facilities, inspection services and maintenance services for public or private on-site systems, or any other means of sewage treatment and disposal approved by the city;
  2. Combined sanitary sewage disposal and storm or surface water sewers;
  3. Storm or surface water sewers;
  4. Outfalls for storm drainage or sanitary sewage and works, plants, and facilities for storm drainage or sanitary sewage treatment and disposal, and rights and interests in property relating to the system;
  5. Combined water and sewerage systems;
  6. Point and nonpoint water pollution monitoring programs that are directly related to the sewerage facilities and programs operated by a city or town;
  7. Public restroom and sanitary facilities; and
  8. Any combination of or part of any or all of such facilities.

Therefore, MRSC takes the position that surface water utility charges may be included in a sewer lien, which would follow the processes outlined in RCW 35.67.200 through RCW 35.67.290.

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Reviewed: June 2020

There are a couple of components to your questions. Regarding authority to close streets temporarily to vehicle traffic, the city has broad authority to do so, especially during an emergency. Even in non-emergencies, code cities have broad authority to manage and regulate right of way—see, for example RCW 35A.11.020. Once your county enters into Phase II of the Safe Start COVID-19 recovery plan, we think the city could temporarily restrict certain rights-of-way so they are available only to pedestrians, non-motor vehicles and expanded outdoor restaurants pursuant to an order setting forth the public health and economic basis for doing so. Such an order should contain interim standards that address the circumstances and conditions that will govern the temporary use of the right-of-way.

Ordinarily, use of right-of-way requires the restaurant operator to pay a fee for the use of public property for restaurant purposes. However, under these emergency circumstances, the Washington Attorney General has released guidance that may provide the basis for local governments to incur expenditures (or forego revenue) in light of the COVID-19 emergency.

The Phase II guidance from the governor to restaurants and taverns authorizes outdoor seating at the same 50% capacity and under the same conditions and restrictions as indoor seating.

Consumption of alcohol in outdoor areas not previously authorized by the Washington Liquor and Cannabis Board (LCB) should be avoided, at least until there is guidance from the Board. The LCB has a COVID-19 webpage that summarizes steps taken by them in response to COVID-19. The LCB has not addressed this specific issue, although it has taken a number of actions, including allowing minors to sit in areas normally limited to individuals who are over 21 and allowing sales of beer, wine, and liquor for consumption off premises when purchased with take-out food orders. We are not aware of any proposals by the LCB to allow alcohol consumption in “new” outdoor seating areas. We recommend reaching out to the LCB directly for guidance.

At this time, we are not aware of any Washington cities or counties that have adopted orders to this effect although there is discussion, both in Washington and other parts of the country. Here are some recent articles on the topic:

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Reviewed: May 2020

Effective January 1, 2020, contractors must file weekly certified payroll reports for all prevailing wage jobs (regardless of project amount), and submit them to the Washington State Department of Labor & Industries (L&I) directly. These reports are submitted online through L&I’s Prevailing Wage Intent and Affidavit (PWIA) system. The local government agency has no responsibility to review and check the reports. For more information, the contractor should contact L&I at

Projects that began prior to January 1, 2020, and that are still in progress will require certified payroll filing for work performed from January 1, 2020 and forward. The reporting is not retroactive for these projects. See RCW 39.12.120.

Contractors must always provide weekly certified payroll reports for federal projects.

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Reviewed: April 2020

Custodial services are generally considered purchased services subject to prevailing wages. As long as the services provided involve normal cleaning work, this would be the situation. If they are doing any handyman work that involves repairs, upgrades and similar types of improvements, then the work would likely fall in the public works category.

Please note that custodial contracts require annual updates to prevailing wages. See page 55 of the Department of Labor and Industries Prevailing Wage Law booklet.

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Reviewed: January 2020

If the city wants to use a small works roster (for public works projects under $350k), it can elect to do so pursuant to RCW 39.04.155. This is an optional process. If the city elects not to use the small works roster, then a formal competitive bid process must be followed if the project exceeds applicable bid limits. Effective July 28, 2019, ESSB 5418 increased the day labor/bid limits for code cities, second class cities, and towns to $75,500 (single craft) and $116,155 (multiple craft).

If the project is below applicable bid limits, a city may use the small works roster or a minimal competition process. For more on this, see our Find your Contracting Requirements Tool.

For cities, there is no statutory requirement for bidding for services (which would include consultants). This process is expected to be outlined in policy by the agency. The agency can, therefore, define whether it requires a roster to be used, or any other process deemed appropriate. Some agencies establish different procedures depending on the amount anticipated to be spent.

There is no requirement for an agency to use a roster for A&E contracting. A roster can be incorporated into the A&E process of Ch. 39.80 RCW, and such procedures should be set forth in the agency’s policies.

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