This page provides detailed guidance to help local governments in Washington State develop and adopt investment policies, including key questions to consider and sample policies.
Every city and county that invests its excess funds has an investment policy, but some are more formal and well-developed than others. Even if your jurisdiction has not developed and adopted a written policy, it still has an ad hoc policy resulting from the individual investment decisions made in the past. Those decisions have resulted in a portfolio with certain maturities, yields, liquidity, safety, etc. However, that portfolio might not be what your jurisdiction would choose if it looked at the overall picture.
Establishing and adopting a written investment policy is a smart financial practice and can help your jurisdiction improve its financial security. It also provides protection for elected officials and staff by spelling out investment goals and responsibilities.
Note: Most special purpose districts do not have their own treasurer and rely on the county treasurer instead. These jurisdictions do not need investment policies since the county manages investments (subject to the county’s investment policy) on their behalf.
There are many components of a successful investment policy. The Washington Public Treasurers Association (WPTA) and Government Finance Officers Association (GFOA) provide lists of recommended areas, which include:
- Scope and investment objectives
- Delegation of authority and responsibilities
- Authorized financial dealers and institutions
- Authorized investments
- Investment diversification
- Performance standards
- Reporting and oversight
Within these components, there are several critical decisions to make to ensure accountability and help your jurisdiction achieve its financial goals, as discussed below.
The purpose statement is the opening statement of your investment policy. It should set a clear and concise picture of your jurisdiction's goals. Tailor the scope and investment objectives to the type of investment being made. There may be different objectives for investing excess operating funds (liquidity), bond reserves (return), and capital reserves (safety).
Key questions to consider:
- Which funds will be invested? Define the funds that will be included within the investment policy. For example, the policy might apply to all funds with excess cash available for investment, or the policy could specifically exclude fiduciary funds.
- What are your overall objectives, and in what order? The objectives typically speak to safety, liquidity, and return on investment (yield). Each of these areas should be discussed and ranked in priority order based on your purpose and objectives.
- Liquidity: The ability to access funds when needed without penalty (or loss) should always be first or second priority.
- Safety: The excess funds that are being invested are taxpayer dollars and therefore a good investment policy should always have safety as the first or second priority.
- Return on investment (yield): The purpose of investing is to generate an increase in funds, but investments should not be made at the expense of liquidity and safety. Typically, a greater return requires a longer commitment to the investment type (bonds, for example); these time constraints reduce liquidity. Consider the length of the investment to maturity and whether the fund can restrict access until that time. Building these concepts into your investment policy will reduce the possibility of an investment loss.
- Should you consider different objectives for different types of investments? For instance, investments for excess operating funds will need to be more liquid than those for bond reserves, while capital reserve investments must be mindful of when each project will need funds.
It is important to clearly identify the titles and responsibilities of the person or people empowered to make investment decisions on behalf of your jurisdiction. The delegation of authority section of your investment plan should define the level of authority granted and the requirements for the officer or officers to establish an internal control system to regulate subordinates' activities.
Key questions to consider:
- Who is the designated investment officer? The designated officer is responsible for carrying out the policy's objectives. Select a position rather than a specific individual. Possible investment officers include (but are not limited to) the finance director or the clerk/treasurer.
- How much authority and discretion should the investment officer have? Is the officer expected to have special investment knowledge? Or should the authority granted be limited to certain types of investments? More sophisticated investment types require greater levels of investment knowledge. To ensure accountability and safeguard the investments, the investment officer should regularly answer to management (mayors, city managers, city administrators, and/or a finance committee) as well as to the legislative body.
- Who is the alternate investment officer? What happens if the investment officer leaves for another job, retires, or is unable to carry out their duties? It can take time to find a qualified replacement, so make sure you have someone designated as an alternate.
- Are there any types of investments that require special authorization? Depending on the size of the entity, investments in longer-term bonds, certificates of deposit, or other more sophisticated instruments may require additional levels of internal control. Consider defining the length of the investment when delegating investment authority to the investment officer. For example, smaller jurisdictions with little expertise in investing might require additional approval from management or the finance committee when considering investments of three years or more.
Your investment policy should consider which dealers and/or financial institutions are authorized to be used, establish evaluation criteria, and designate oversight. For example, all authorized broker/dealers and financial institutions must provide statements of qualifications that include financial statements or consolidated reports of condition.
It is important to include the requirement that "no public funds shall be deposited in demand or investment deposits except in a public depositary located in this state or as otherwise expressly permitted by statute" (RCW 39.58.080).
Key questions to consider:
- How will you evaluate authorized financial dealers and institutions? A written procedure should be developed for selecting financial dealers and institutions and referenced as part of the policy statement. Selection criteria may consider factors such as creditworthiness, authorization to provide investment services in Washington, SEC qualifications, and current financial statements or consolidated reports on file.
- Should you solicit a minimum number of bids? Obtaining multiple bids can help your jurisdiction get the best return on investment, so some cities and counties require a minimum number of quotes or bids (generally three).
All municipal corporations in Washington are empowered to invest in certain types of securities. Eligible investments are provided for in chapter 39.58 RCW and chapter 39.59 RCW. The authority to invest in the Washington State Treasurer’s Local Government Investment Pool (LGIP) is found in chapter 43.250 RCW.
The investment policy should confirm which types of securities your entity is comfortable investing in.
Key questions to consider:
- What are the objectives of the investment? Liquidity? Safety? Return on investment? Your jurisdiction’s objectives and priorities will help you decide on the appropriate authorized investments. For instance, if liquidity is your primary objective, the LGIP (which has lower yield but higher liquidity) may be the appropriate investment.
- How much flexibility does your jurisdiction need? When authorizing investments, consider potential changes in the economy and market conditions, as well as your investment officer's expertise. Your policy should provide a level of flexibility for those purchases that will incorporate a level of internal control (oversight) to ensure compliance with the objectives.
Developing a diversification strategy, which sets maximum limits on the amount of funds that can be invested in a given type of instrument (and often sets limits on individual issuers too) is key to achieving your investment objectives. By eliminating the risk of over-concentration in any specific area, diversification can help maximize revenue, minimize risk, and ensure sufficient liquidity.
Key questions to consider:
- What should the diversification requirements be? Diversification discussions should include if you will invest funds in areas other than the LGIP or money market bank accounts through your local bank. What percentage of the portfolio should be in the LGIP? 100%? Consider the various security types and establish a maximum limit on the type. For example:
- WA State LGIP – max of 100%
- U.S. Treasury bills, notes & bonds – max of 100%
- Certificates of Deposit (CDs) – max of 30%
- WA State and Local Bonds – max of 20%
- Bonds of other states or local governments other than the State of WA – max of 15%
- What is your desired return on investment, and is that a reasonable goal given your desired diversification, maturity, and liquidity? For smaller jurisdictions in particular, LGIP may make the most sense: the rate of return (see the LGIP annual reports) is very low, but it also provides the most liquidity. Higher-yield investments may generate more revenue, but they have much lower liquidity.
- What is the desired maximum and average maturity? Consideration should be given to the funds being invested. Debt reserves will have restrictive covenants, and determining the payoff date of the debt will assist in establishing maximum maturity for debt reserves. Maximum maturity should also speak to market conditions. What is the current economic climate? Does it make sense to invest in instruments with maturities in excess of five years? 10 years?
To meet these goals, your investment policy should also establish performance standards comparing the yield to other key indexes. Some policies tie their performance to the federal level, typically Treasury Bills or federal fund rates, while others tie their performance to the LGIP.
Good internal controls are key to ensuring your jurisdiction’s financial health and making sure the investment policy is followed. To ensure accountability and safeguard the investments, the investment officer should regularly answer to both management (your administration and/or finance committee) and your legislative body.
The investment officer should report at least once per quarter, and depending on the circumstances and market conditions they should report more frequently.
Key questions to consider:
- Who will provide oversight? If your jurisdiction is relatively small, you may want to incorporate investment oversight into your existing finance committee. In very small cities and towns, the investment officer might report directly to the mayor. If your jurisdiction is large enough, you may want to establish a separate investment committee, in which case you will have to think about how many members there should be and who should serve on the committee. The investment committee should never constitute a quorum of the legislative body. The full legislative body should also receive regular investment reports.
- How often should each body receive reports? For instance, the investment officer might submit a monthly report to the mayor and quarterly reports to the investment committee, or monthly reports to the investment committee and quarterly reports to the full council.
- What information should be included in each report? At a minimum, the reports should discuss recent market conditions, economic developments, security types, investment transaction details, and perhaps anticipated investment strategies. The most effective reports will also compare the return on investments to the desired benchmarks established in the policy.
- How should investment values be reported? The report should clarify whether the values being reported are "fair market" or "cost." It is recommended that both the fair market value and the cost be reported to provide the reader with an understanding of the investment activity.
WPTA provides a useful Investment Policy Certification Program for members. A WPTA policy review committee will evaluate your investment policy to make sure it adequately addresses core policy areas and, if so, certify the policy. Certification provides useful guidance to protect your jurisdiction, as well as reassuring your elected officials and members of the public.
Certification is valid for five years and may be renewed. WPTA strongly recommends certifying the policy before submitting it to your governing body for adoption.
The Association of Public Treasurers of the United States and Canada (APT US&C) also offers a higher-level investment policy certification program that might interest larger jurisdictions.
Below are some useful investment policies, reports, and related documents, focusing particularly on small and mid-sized jurisdictions.
Investment Policy Template
- WPTA Investment Policy Certification Program – Includes guidelines and model policy; developed for smaller jurisdictions in Washington State
- Federal Way Investment Policy (2023) – Certified by WPTA
- Kirkland Investment Policy (2020)
- Lakewood Investment Policy (2015) – Includes adopting resolution and qualifications for brokers/dealers.
- Mukilteo Investment Policy and Procedures (2019) – Includes procedures and questions to determine whether to join an investment pool
- North Bend Investment Policy (2011) – Certified by APT US&C
- Olympia Investment Policy (2015)
- Poulsbo Investment Policy (2018) – Includes adopting resolution
- Redmond Investment Policy (2020)
- Sequim Investment Management Policy (2016)
- Benton County Investment Policy (2020)
- Clallam County Investment Policy (2022)
- Walla Walla County Investment Policy (2022)
Special Purpose Districts
- Camas Financial Investment Reports – Monthly reports
- Port of Port Angeles Quarterly Investment Report (Q2 2015)
- Renton Financial Reports – Includes links to most recent quarterly investment reports
- Walla Walla County Treasurer Investments – Includes links to most recent monthly investment review/reports, created by investment firm
Other Investment Documents
- Bellevue Investment Management Services RFI (2010) - Request for information to help the city decide whether to hire an outside company to manage its $210 million investment portfolio
- Olympia Non-Discretionary Investment Advisory Services RFP (2015) - RFP for an investment advisor to manage the city’s $69 million investment portfolio
- Tacoma Housing Authority Resolution No. 2023-01-25(5) (2023) – Updates authorized financial institutions and signers
Below are some useful resources from state agencies, the Government Finance Officers Association (GFOA), and other sources to help you develop an investment policy.
- Washington State Treasurer: Investments Publications – Includes most recent edition of "Guide to Public Funds Investing for Local Governments," which discusses investments permitted under state law, basic elements of a sound investment program, and potential risks of investing public funds
- Washington State Treasurer: Local Government Investment Pool – Overview of LGIP, including investment policy, rates, portfolio, and performance measures
- WPTA Investment Policy Certification Program – Provides guidance for local governments in developing investment policies and includes an investment policy template
- GFOA Best Practices: Investment Policy and Governance Practices – Includes best practices on creating an investment policy, diversifying the investment portfolio, using local government investment pools, selecting securities dealers and investment advisors, and other related topics.
- APTUSC: Investment Policy Certification Program – Technical assistance program provides guidance, a model investment policy, and policy certification. May be especially useful for larger jurisdictions.