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Growth Management Act

This page provides an overview of the Growth Management Act (GMA) in Washington State, including its legal requirements and links to related MRSC pages and other helpful resources.


Overview

The Growth Management Act (GMA) is a series of state statutes, first adopted in 1990, that requires fast-growing cities and counties to develop a comprehensive plan to manage their population growth. It is primarily codified under Chapter 36.70A RCW, although it has been amended and added to in several other parts of the RCW.

Under RCW 36.70A.020, the GMA establishes a series of 13 goals that should act as the basis of all comprehensive plans. The GMA specifically notes in the statute that the goals "are not listed in order of priority and shall be used exclusively for the purpose of guiding the development of comprehensive plans and development regulations." The legislature added the goals and policies of the Shoreline Management Act as the fourteenth GMA goal (RCW 36.70A.480). The shoreline goals may be found at RCW 90.58.020. Below you will find a list of those goals along with an abbreviated description (for the full descriptions, see RCW 36.70A.020).

GMA Goals (RCW 36.70A.020)
  1. Urban growth. Encourage development in urban areas.
  2. Reduce Sprawl. Reduce the inappropriate conversion of undeveloped land.
  3. Transportation. Encourage efficient multimodal transportation systems.
  4. Housing. Plan for and accommodate housing affordable to all economic segments.
  5. Economic development. Encourage economic development throughout the state.
  6. Property rights. Private property shall not be taken for public use without just compensation having been made.
  7. Permits. Applications should be processed in a timely and fair manner.
  8. Natural resource industries. Maintain and enhance natural resource-based industries.
  9. Open space and recreation. Retain open space, enhance recreational opportunities.
  10. Environment. Protect the environment and enhance the state's high quality of life, including air and water quality, and the availability of water.
  11. Citizen participation and coordination. Encourage the involvement of citizens.
  12. Public facilities and services. Ensure that those public facilities and services necessary to support development shall be adequate.
  13. Historic preservation. Identify and encourage preservation.
  14. Climate change and resiliency. Ensure that comprehensive plans, development regulations, and regional policies, plans, and strategies adapt to and mitigate the effects of a changing climate.
  15. Shoreline management (RCW 36.70A.480)

The Washington State Department of Commerce is the primary state-level contact for GMA-related issues. They provide technical assistance to help local governments comply with the GMA and implement their comprehensive plans effectively.


Who Is Required to Plan Under GMA?

Map of Washington counties by GMA status
Click map for higher resolution
 

Based on the requirements in RCW 36.70A.040, 18 counties, and all the cities and towns within them, are required to "fully plan" under the GMA. An additional 11 counties had originally opted to fully plan, although one county (Ferry County) later opted out under EHB 1224 (2014), which gave counties under 20,000 population the option to opt out by December 31, 2015. The 28 "fully planning" counties make up about 95% of the state's population. Per SB 5457 (2023), RCW 36.70A.130 allows cities with populations under 500 people to fully opt out of comprehensive planning under “some circumstances.”

The 10 counties that opted to “fully plan” must plan according to the same requirements as the fully planning counties. The 11 counties that are not required to “fully plan” must just plan for critical areas and natural resource land only under the GMA.


Natural Resource Lands and Critical Areas

Under the GMA, all cities and counties - even if they are not subject to comprehensive planning - are directed to designate natural resource lands (including those related to forestry, agriculture, fisheries, and mining) and identify steps to preserve them. For more information, see the Department of Commerce's Natural Resource Lands page.

In addition, all cities and counties in Washington are also required to adopt critical areas regulations. As defined in RCW 36.70A.030(6):

 "Critical areas" include the following areas and ecosystems: (a) Wetlands; (b) areas with a critical recharging effect on aquifers used for potable water; (c) fish and wildlife habitat conservation areas; (d) frequently flooded areas; and (e) geologically hazardous areas. "Fish and wildlife habitat conservation areas" does not include such artificial features or constructs as irrigation delivery systems, irrigation infrastructure, irrigation canals, or drainage ditches that lie within the boundaries of and are maintained by a port district or an irrigation district or company.

In 2023, SSB 5374 amended RCW 36.70A.060 allowing a city of fewer than 25,000 people to adopt their county’s GMA critical area regulations by reference. Counties and cities are required to include the best available science in developing policies and development regulations to protect the functions and values of critical areas (RCW 36.70A.172).

For more information, see our page on Critical Areas or the Department of Commerce's page on Critical Areas, including their useful Critical Areas Handbook.


Comprehensive Plans

The GMA establishes the comprehensive plan as the centerpiece of local long-range planning, which contains a vision, goals, objectives, policies, and implementation action that are intended to guide day-to-day decisions by elected officials and local government staff.

The GMA lays out the following mandatory and optional comprehensive elements:

Mandatory Comp Plan Elements
(RCW 36.70A.070)
Optional Comp Plan Elements
  • Land Use
  • Housing
  • Capital Facilities Plan
  • Utilities
  • Rural Development (counties only)
  • Transportation
  • Climate Change and Resiliency*
  • Ports (mandatory for cities with annual maritime port revenues exceeding $60 million, RCW 36.70A.085)
  • Economic Development**
  • Parks and Recreation**
  • Conservation (RCW 36.70A.080)
  • Solar Energy (RCW 36.70A.080)
  • Recreation (RCW 36.70A.080)
  • Subarea Plans (neighborhoods, rural villages, urban growth areas, tribal areas, etc.)
  • Ports (optional for cities with annual maritime port revenues of $20 million to $60 million, RCW 36.70A.085)

* The Climate Change and Resiliency element was added in 2023 as a mandatory element per RCW 36.70A.070(9).
** These elements are listed as mandatory in RCW 36.70A.070(7) and (8), but they are actually optional because funds have not been appropriated to help pay for preparing them, per RCW 36.70A.070(9).

While all of these elements are important and interrelated, the land use element sets the direction of future growth in a community, which is usually depicted on a future land use map. This future land use map, which is policy-oriented, is then implemented in large part by the official zoning map, which is a regulatory tool. Comprehensive plans must also address "essential public facilities" that are typically difficult to site, such as airports, educational facilities, transportation facilities, and correctional facilities.

Each Washington city and county must periodically review and, if needed, revise its comprehensive plan and development regulations every 10 years  to ensure that they comply with the GMA, as per the schedule provided in RCW 36.70A.130. Comprehensive plan amendments may be adopted on a more frequent basis (with some communities having established a formal annual amendment process), but no more than once per year.

The GMA places a strong emphasis on implementation, since most goals, objectives, and policies in a comprehensive plan cannot be achieved without strong regulatory and financial support (such as zoning, capital spending, and non-capital spending). Under the GMA, a local agency’s development regulations (such as zoning) and capital budget decisions must be made in conformity with its comprehensive plan (RCW 36.70A.120).

For more information, see our page on Comprehensive Planning.


Urban Growth Areas and Accommodating Future Growth

Under the GMA, the state Office of Financial Management (OFM) develops population projections for the state and each county. Each "fully planning" county is then mandated to determine, in consultation with cities, where that growth should be directed to occur. Once these growth projections are adopted, then the county and cities are to use them in their comprehensive planning processes and make sure that their plans can accommodate the projected level of growth (RCW 36.70A.115).

The state’s Buildable Lands program has designated the counties of Clark, King, Kitsap, Pierce, Snohomish, Thurston, and Whatcom, as being counties that have to collect data about their development trends and undertake “reasonable measures” to show how they will be able to accommodate the expected amount of future development.

The GMA was amended in 2021 to require that designated cities also identify the capacity and actions needed to accommodate future housing growth within four household income categories (based on Housing and Urban Development guidelines using Average Median Income, or AMI): moderate (80-95% AMI), low (50-80% AMI), very low (30-50%), and extremely low (<30 AMI).

Part of a county’s long-range planning process involves identifying urban growth areas (UGAs), which are areas where “urban growth shall be encouraged and outside of which growth can occur only if it is not urban in nature” (RCW 36.70A.110). Counties are responsible for designating, expanding, and reducing UGA boundaries, although they are required to consult with the cities in their determinations.

Based on OFM population projections, UGAs and zoning densities within them should be set to accommodate growth that is projected to occur in the county or city over the next 20 years, although they can provide additional capacity to accommodate a “reasonable land market supply factor” (RCW 36.70A.110(2)). There are some limitations on UGAs, including limits in floodplain areas and in national historic reserves.

Each county that designates UGAs under RCW 36.70A.110 is required to review patterns of development occurring within the UGA. If the review determines that patterns of development have created pressure in areas that exceed available developable lands within the UGA, the UGA may be revised subject to certain requirements.

Areas within the UGA but outside of city or town boundaries should be addressed by the adjacent city and the county through the county-wide planning policies process. Outside of the UGA, cities and towns are limited in the actions they can take regarding those areas. For example, cities are highly limited in their ability to extend utilities and other governmental services outside the UGA (RCW 36.70A.110(4))

For more information on UGAs, see the Department of Commerce’s Urban Growth Area Guidebook (2012).


Growth Management Hearings Board

The Growth Management Hearings Board resolves disputes concerning comprehensive plans and development regulations adopted under the GMA. The board is made up of nine members divided evenly into three regional boards: Eastern Washington, Central Puget Sound, and Western Washington.

Challenges to the GMA are heard by a three-member panel comprised of two members residing in the geographic area of a challenge, with one acting as the presiding officer, and a third member drawn from one of the other regions. Each hearing panel must include “a member admitted to practice law in the state,” a former city or county elected official, and must “reflect the political composition of the board” (RCW 36.70A.260).

The governor has the authority to impose sanctions on cities, counties, and state agencies that do not comply with the GMA, as determined by the Growth Management Hearings Board (RCW 36.70A.340 - .345). Sanctions may include withholding or temporarily rescinding the authority to collect portions of one or more of the following:

  • Motor vehicle fuel tax
  • Transportation improvement account
  • Rural arterial trust account
  • Sales and use tax
  • Liquor profit tax
  • Liquor excise tax
  • Real estate excise taxes (REET)

The Growth Management Hearings Board website contains numerous resources, including a handbook (2023) for practicing before the board and digests of decisions (2023).


Recommended Resources

  • Department of Commerce
    • Growth Management Services – The go-to resource for guidebooks, grants, training, and other resources to help jurisdictions comply with GMA
    • A Short Course on Local Planning – Very helpful online resources and in-person training courses on most aspects of local planning in Washington, including a downloadable guidebook and a series of short videos including Growth Management topics, laws and guidebooks.
  • Office of Financial Management: GMA County Projections – Population projections (updated every 5 years) for each county under low, medium, and high levels of growth, as well as population change over the last 10 years.

Last Modified: February 23, 2024