Solid Waste Collection, Recycling, and Disposal
This page provides information about solid waste collection and disposal for local governments in Washington State, including legal requirements, solid waste management plans, collection options, compost, and examples of local policies, procedures, rates, and contracts.
In RCW 70A.205.010, the Washington State Legislature states:
The purpose of this chapter is to establish a comprehensive statewide program for solid waste handling, and solid waste recovery and/or recycling which will prevent land, air, and water pollution and conserve the natural, economic, and energy resources of this state. To this end it is the purpose of this chapter:
(1) To assign primary responsibility for adequate solid waste handling to local government, reserving to the state, however, those functions necessary to assure effective programs throughout the state;
(2) To provide for adequate planning for solid waste handling by local government; ...,
While Washington cities and counties have primary responsibility for managing solid waste collection and disposal, they are not required to directly provide those services (see RCW 35.21.120, RCW 35.21.130, and RCW 36.58.040). Moreover, the relevant statutes do not mandate that all residents and businesses have their trash collected by a public or private hauler.
Washington State Department of Ecology's State Solid and Hazardous Waste Plan guides the management of waste and materials in the state, helping local governments stay in compliance with the statewide purposes, goals, and rules that establish minimum functional standards for solid waste handling in Chapter 70A.205. The state plan is updated every five years.
Counties and Cities
- Ch. 70A.205 RCW - Solid Waste Management Reduction and Recycling
Cities and Towns
- RCW 35.21.120 - 35.21.158 - Solid Waste Disposal
- RCW 35.92.020 - Authority for cities to acquire and operate solid waste systems and facilities.
- RCW 35.13.280 - Cancellation, acquisition of franchise or permit for operation of public service in territory annexed--Regulation of solid waste collection.
- RCW 35.02.160 - Cancellation, acquisition of franchise or permit for operation of public service in territory annexed--Regulation of solid waste collection (incorporated cities and towns).
- RCW 35A.21.060 - Garbage ordinance--Lien--Foreclosure.
- RCW 35A.14.900 - Cancellation, acquisition of franchise or permit for operation of public service business in territory annexed--Regulation of solid waste collection.
- RCW 35A.21.152 - Solid waste collection--Rate increase notice.
- RCW 35A.21.153 - Solid waste collection curbside recycling--Reduced rate.
- Ch. 36.58 RCW - Solid Waste Disposal
Solid Waste Collection Districts
Solid Waste Collection Companies
RCW 70A.205.040 requires each county within the state, in cooperation with the various cities located within the county, to prepare a coordinated, comprehensive solid waste management plan (SWMP). The statute encourages joint solid waste planning between and among adjoining cities and counties.
The plan must include the items listed in RCW 70A.205.045. In 2019, a new provision was added requiring all counties with a population greater than 25,000 to include a recycling contamination reduction and outreach plan by July 1, 2021 to reduce contamination in recycling. Counties may adopt their own plans or use the statewide Contamination and Reduction and Outreach Plan (CROP). Local governments are also encouraged by this statute to incorporate food waste reduction strategies consistent with the Department of Ecology's Use Food Well Washington Plan (2022).
The Department of Ecology's Guidelines for the Development of Local Solid Waste Management Plans and Plan Revisions (2010) is another useful resource, along with the Utilities and Transportation Commission’s (UTC) Cost Assessment Guidelines for Local Waste Management Planning (2019).
Examples of SWMPs
- Chelan County Solid Waste Management Plan (2017)
- Clark County Solid Waste Management Plan (2015 plan and 2023 plan update)
- Douglas County Final Solid Waste and Moderate Risk Waste Management Plan (2018)
- Whatcom County Comprehensive Solid and Hazardous Waste Management Plan (2016)
- Yakima County Comprehensive Solid Waste and Moderate Risk Waste Management Plan (2017) - Includes resolution adopting plan
Cities and counties have the following options regarding solid waste collection (including recycling):
WUTC Sets Rates and Service Area
If a municipality does not provide collection service or contract for such service, the Washington Utilities and Transportation Commission (WUTC) sets the service area and rates for private firms that may wish to serve the municipality. In case of an annexation, a city is required to grant a franchise to the WUTC-regulated solid waste collector that serves the area annexed for a period of seven years after it notifies the WUTC of its intent to provide or regulate collection services inside the city (RCW 35.02.160).
Municipality Collection Service and Billings
Many local governments in Washington require compulsory and universal solid waste collection. Some municipalities provide municipal collection service and billings.
Examples of Municipal Codes
Below are examples of cities requiring or having a system of compulsory and universal collection.
- Anacortes Municipal Code Sec. 8.04.010 - Requires compulsory and universal collection.
- Shelton Municipal Code Ch. 8.08 - Requires compulsory collection.
- Camas Municipal Code Ch. 13.80 - City has system of universal compulsory refuse or solid waste collection.
Municipality Contracts with Another Municipality
Under the Washington State Interlocal Cooperation Act (Ch. 39.34 RCW) a municipality can contract with another local agency, city or county for solid waste collection services. Only very small cities are using this option.
Municipality Contracts with Private Firm with Municipality Controlling Billings and Rates
Municipalities may enter into contracts with waste hauler for collection and recycling services, but continue to do billings and control rates.
Examples of Municipal Codes
- Kirkland Municipal Code Title 16
- Renton Municipal Code Title 8 Ch. 1
- Seattle Municipal Code Ch. 21.40
Municipality Contracts with Private Firm with Municipality Only Controlling Rates
A municipality can contract with a waste hauler for collection and recycling services who does billings while the Municipality controls rates.
Examples of Municipal Codes
- Montesano Municipal Code Ch. 6.04
- Puyallup Municipal Code Ch. 6.12
- Vancouver Municipal Code Ch. 6.12
- Bellingham Municipal Code Ch. 9.12
Municipality Licenses or Franchises Private Firm
Municipalities may grant a franchise or license to a waste hauler or haulers, with WUTC control over rates and billings.
Examples of Municipal Codes
- Des Moines Municipal Code Ch. 7.08
- Kent Municipal Code Ch. 7.03
- Ocean Shores Municipal Code Ch. 8.06
- Chehalis Agreement for Collection and Disposal of Solid Waste (2017) - Original agreement is followed amendment extending the agreement until December 31, 2027. Also includes updated collection rates.
- Clyde Hill Contract for Garbage, Recyclables and Organics Collection (2021) - Contract with Rabanco, Ltd., dba Republic Services of Bellevue. Ends June 30, 2029.
- Kirkland Agreement for Comprehensive Garbage, Recyclables and Compostables Collection (2022) - Agreement with Waste Management of Washington, Inc. Contract extended through December 21, 2032.
- Sammamish Contract for Comprehensive Garbage, Recyclables and Compostables Collection (2017) - Contract with Rabanco, Ltd., dba Republic Services of Bellevue. Ends December 31, 2025.
Composting organic waste such as food scraps and yard waste provides a number of benefits, including reducing the amount of waste sent to landfills or incinerators, reducing greenhouse gas emissions from landfills, and providing soil benefits for the users of the finished compost.
By January 1, 2023, counties and cities with a population greater than 25,000 are required to adopt a compost procurement ordinance (RCW 43.19A.150). This requirement also applies to all cities and counties that provide organic material collection services under Chapter 70A.205 RCW, regardless of population.
Any jurisdiction required to adopt a compost procurement ordinance must also develop strategies to inform residents about the value of compost and how the jurisdiction uses compost and submit annual reports to the Department of Ecology by December 31 of each year (beginning in 2024) on the previous year's compost procurement activities.
The purpose of the compost procurement requirements is to strengthen markets for the increasing amount of compost generated statewide by requiring local governments to plan for the use of compost in landscaping projects, construction and postconstruction soil amendments, and other projects.
Any development regulations to implement comprehensive plans under Chapter 36.70A RCW (Growth Management Act) or Chapter 36.70 RCW that are developed, updated, or amended after January 1, 2025 must allow for the siting of organic materials management facilities in the areas identified in RCW 70A.205.040(3)(a)(i), which puts priority areas in industrial zones, agricultural zones, or rural zones (see RCW 36.70A.142 and RCW 36.70.330).
For more information on composting and the recent legislative changes, see the Department of Ecology webpages on Compost and 2022 Organics Management Law, as well as the 2022 Organics Management Law focus sheet that provides an overview of the compost procurement ordinance requirements along with links to sample policies and resources.
Beginning January 1, 2027, each jurisdiction that implements a local solid waste plan under RCW 70A.205.040 must provide source-separated organic solid waste collection services in accordance with RCW 70A.205.540. However, this statute has a number of exceptions that take into account factors such as total population size, solid waste generation levels, population density, and urban growth area boundaries.
- Royal City Garbage Rates (2021)
- WA State Department of Ecology: Reducing and Recycling Waste - See also Biosolids page
- MRSC: Biosolids
Washington State Department of Ecology
- State Solid and Hazardous Waste Plan
- Beyond Solid Waste and Toxics Progress Report
- Solid Waste Management - Links to solid waste management programs, data, and services
- Local Solid and Hazardous Waste Planning